Biology Unit 6 Human Physiology

Example of the enzyme amylase
salivary amylase
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Example of the enzyme protease
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Example of the enzyme lipase
pancreatic lipase
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Source of enzyme amylase
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source of enzyme protease
gastric juice
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source of enzyme lipase
pancreatic juice
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substrate of enzyme amylase
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substrate of enzyme protease
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substrate of enzyme lipase
lipids (triglycerides)
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product of enzyme amylase
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product of enzyme protease
shorter polypeptide chains
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product of enzyme lipase
glycerol and fatty acids
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optimum pH of enzyme amylase
pH 7
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optimum pH of enzyme protease
pH 2
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optimum pH of enzyme lipase
pH 8
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What is the function of the stomach?
temporarily store food, chemically digest proteins, kill pathogens
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Define absorption
taking in substances through cell membranes ie from lumen of guts into blood
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Define assimilation
conversion of nutrients into fluid or solid parts of organism, takes place after absorption
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What do the coronary arteries do?
supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients
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How much of the human body is blood?
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What is blood composed of?
plasma, erythrocytes, leococytes, and platelets
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What is plasma composed of?
90 % water, dissolved proteins, dissolved nutrients, hormones, waste
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Define erythrocyte
red blood cells (90%)
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Define leucocyte
white blood cell
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Define phagocytes
(WBC) non specific defense ie against antigens
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Define lymphocytes
(WBC) specific defense, production of antibodies
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What 7 things are transported by blood?
oxygen, nutrients (glucose), CO2, hormones (insulin), antibodies, waste (urea), heat
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Define pathogen
an organism or virus that causes disease in another organism (bacteria, fungi, virus)
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Define antigen
molecule that is recognised by the organism as foreign
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Define antibody
soluble protein produced by plasma cell, produced by immune system as response to antigen
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What does an antibody do?
it recognises an antigen and neutralises it
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Define cell respiration
process of releasing energy from food
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Define ventilation
process of moving air in and out of lungs, involves muscular movement, requires energy
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Why is ventilation important?
maintains a concentration gradient so that gas exchange can occur
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Define gas exchange
movement of oxygen from air in lungs into the blood and Co2 the opposite way
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How are alveoli adapted to gas exchange?
large surface area, thin, moist, good blood supply
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What does the nervous system consist of?
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
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What is the Central Nervous System?
Brain and spinal cord
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What is the peripheral Nervous System?
all other nerves not in CNS. cells are neurons, transport messages in electric pulses
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Define resting potential
electric potential (mV) across cell membrane, when there is no electric pulse
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Define action potential
localised reversal and restoration of electric potential across membrane when pulse passes
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What does the endocrine system consist of?
endocrine glands which produce hormones and secrete them into blood to target cells
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What is homeostasis?
maintenance of internal environment between limits
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What are the 5 aspects of homeostasis?
blood pH, Co2 conc, blood glucose conc, body temp, water balance
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What is type 1 diabetes?
low levels of insulin, produced by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans
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What is the cause of type 1 diabetes?
body producing antibodies against insulin or beta cells of iofL
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What is the treatment for type 1 diabetes?
injection of insulin regularly, pancreas or beta cell transplantation
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What is type II diabetes?
insufficient amount of insulin produced, cells less sensitive to insulin
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What are the causes of type II diabetes?
obesity, increasing age, family history
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What are the treatments for type II diabetes?
reduced carbs, exercise, weight loss, medication to increase prod. of insulin and lower blood gluc levels.
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Roles of testosterone
facial/chest hair, deeper voice, growth of reproductive organs, libido, enhance immune function
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Example of the enzyme protease



Card 3


Example of the enzyme lipase


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Card 4


Source of enzyme amylase


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


source of enzyme protease


Preview of the front of card 5
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A useful set of 50 flashcards containing concise definitions and key questions that could be used to revise human physiology. Team these up with a set of notes with clear annotated diagrams, and a quiz or two for a helpful set of resources.

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