- first studies of ECT as a treatment for schizo - disappointing (Karagulla, 1950) - with recovery lower than control group
- combination of medication and ECT - effective for rapid reduction in symptoms
- effectiveness of ECT- inconsistent. APA study - no diff between effects of ECT and antipsychotic meds.
- Sarita et al (1998)- no diff in symptom red between ECT and simulated ECT
- because of risks of ECT, e.g. memory dysfunction, ECT- declined.