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The Historical Context:
· A very controversial treatment,
first used in 1938 to treat
schizophrenia and widespread
during the 1940s.
· Psychiatrists used ECT for all
sorts of disorders including
alcoholism, personality
disorders, and eating disorders.
It is now considered
inappropriate for these disorders
and schizophrenia.
· ECT is used very rarely now.
Successful drug treatments have
emerged since the 1950s.
The specification
requires you to know: · Schizophrenia is rare in people
Biological therapies for with epilepsy, so it was believed
Schizophrenia, including
their evaluation in terms in the 1930s that by inducing
of appropriateness and seizures it could reduce
effectiveness. symptoms of schizophrenia. ECT
is still used to treat
schizophrenia, but its mainly…read more

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What happens in ECT ? A weak
current is
passed across
the temples
for 0.5 - 4
The patient's body seconds.
goes into
convulsions that
are reduced by
muscle relaxants
and anaesthetic (a
mouth gag prevents
the tongue being
Oxygen is
given before
and after Therapy
treatment usually
to aid consists of a
series of
recovery. shock
over several
weeks.…read more

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Does ECT Actually Work?
When it was first
used, some patients
died in ECT due to
undetected heart
defects - patients are
now screened
carefully before the
treatment is allowed.
Many people have
objected to the use of
ECT because we do
not fully understand
the effects of it.
Critics have said it's a
bit like kicking a
television, or hitting a
computer, to make it
ECT may seem
ECT might work
The side effects of brutal but it
by altering the
ECT are not fully seems to benefit
person's No one really
understood. Not some people
memory or by knows what ECT
surprisingly, the with acute
chemically does to the brain or
patient suffers depression
changing their why it sometimes
confusion and when other
brain's has a positive effect
muscular aches treatments have
functioning. on severely
afterwards. Memory not worked.
can also be affected. depressed people.…read more

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1. `Therapies can be time-consuming and, in some cases, uncomfortable
for the client. It is, therefore, very important to offer the most
appropriate and effective type of treatment.'
Outline and evaluate two or more therapies used in the treatment of
(9 marks + 16 marks)
Obtained from January 2011.…read more

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AO2 ­ Evaluation & Analysis
Tharyan & Adams (2005) Bhatia et al (1998)
Meta analysis of 26 studies Showed that patients that
involving 798 patients.
Compared ECT with placebo or
didn't respond to drugs
`sham' ECT. alone were better off when
Found reduced relapse rates ECT was used with the
when actual ECT used rather
than `sham' ECT. drugs.
Also short-term benefits of ECT, Chanpattanna (2007)
but smaller than those of drugs
& not known whether there are Found that ECT, when
long-term benefits.
Evidence suggests that ECT, used with drugs reduced
combined with treatment with positive symptoms
antipsychotic drugs, may be
considered an option for people successfully, but ECT was
with schizophrenia. ineffective on negative
symptoms and could
even worsen the…read more

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