Biological Explanations Of Sz

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  • Created by: ces
  • Created on: 09-01-16 20:21
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  • Biological Explanations for SZ
    • Genetics
      • Concordance Rates
        • Concordance Rates show that SZ is at least partly inherited through genes
          • 1% have SZ
          • 16% if one parent has the disorder the child will
          • 46% if both parents have the disorder the child will
          • 48% if one MZ (identical) twin has the disorder, the other will
        • Shows that the genetically similar you are with someone with SZ, the higher the likelihood you will as well
        • However, the more genetically similar you are with someone the more likely you are to have grown up in the same environment
          • Meaning that it is difficult to separate out the influences of genes (nature) and environment (nurture)
      • Adoption Studies
        • Adoption Studies support the biological explanation of SZ & can be useful as the children do not grow up in the same environment as the SZ parent, meaning it reduces the environmental element
        • Tienari
          • Conducted an natural experiment on 155 adopted children who were born to a SZ birth mother
            • He found that when compared to a control group who's  birth mother did not have SZ, the SZ birth mother group were 10x more likely to develop SZ
              • However, the role of the environment shouldn't be ignored as children raised away from SZ parent were less likely to develop the disorder compared to those raised with SZ parent (10% compared to 16%)
                • Supporting the view that nurture is an important factor is the cause of SZ
      • No Single SZ Gene
        • A number of genes have been identified (e.g. COMT, DISC1)
        • It is likely that a complex interaction of multiple genes and the environment is responsible for SZ
        • Some Phenotypic Plasticity
          • A person might inherit the genotype to be SZic, but the interaction between nature and nurture (diathesis-stress) may be the cause of SZ
    • The Dopamine Hypothesis
      • Amphetamine such as speed, are known to trigger SZ-like symptoms in previously unaffected people, and make SZ symptoms worse for those already suffering
      • L-Dopa is used to treat Parkinson's disease. The brain converts L-Dopa into dopamine, but too much L-Dopa can result in SZ symptoms
      • The most effective treatment for SZ is antipsychotic medication which are dopamine antagonists and reduce the activity of dopamine at the receptor sites
      • Suggests that the symptoms of SZ are caused by hyperactive dopamine transmission, which occur because of abnormalities at the D2 receptor sites in the brain
      • The Genes which make people vulnerable to SZ might be responsible for regulating our brain biochemistry
      • Post Mortem examinations of people with SZ show that there was 60-110% more dopamine found in the brains of people who suffered with SZ
  • The Dopamine Hypothesis
    • Amphetamine such as speed, are known to trigger SZ-like symptoms in previously unaffected people, and make SZ symptoms worse for those already suffering
    • L-Dopa is used to treat Parkinson's disease. The brain converts L-Dopa into dopamine, but too much L-Dopa can result in SZ symptoms
    • The most effective treatment for SZ is antipsychotic medication which are dopamine antagonists and reduce the activity of dopamine at the receptor sites
    • Suggests that the symptoms of SZ are caused by hyperactive dopamine transmission, which occur because of abnormalities at the D2 receptor sites in the brain
    • The Genes which make people vulnerable to SZ might be responsible for regulating our brain biochemistry
    • Post Mortem examinations of people with SZ show that there was 60-110% more dopamine found in the brains of people who suffered with SZ

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