Biodiversity management

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  • Biodiversity management strategies and Policies
    • Total protection
      • strategy
        • areas fenced off from people
        • variety of sustainable strategies
          • eg ecotourism
      • Example
        • Costa Rica- montrevrde cloud forest reserve
          • deforestation has restricted wildlife to certain fragments of the forest
          • project called the Mesoamerican Biological corridor
          • This corridor has 7% of the worlds terrestrial species
          • conservationists are planting strips of forest to reconnect the remaining fragments
          • government has also encouraged ecotourism
            • eg the creation of the canopy walkway though a small part of the monteverde reserve
              • $45 to clib the canopy
                • earn money while keeping the forest protected
      • positives
        • conservation is successful because social, cultural, political and economical factors are taken in
        • influences ecotourism
        • preserve species that are important for scientific research and medical advancements
      • disadvantages
        • conflict in poor countries where citizens are cut off from resources
        • conservation schemes are based on political boundaries not natural boarders
        • outside agencies coordinate these schemes and don't always take into consideration needs of locals
    • Biosphere reserves
      • strategy
        • uses principle of zoning to protect core ecological areas
        • still allows some social and economic development
        • education is vital
        • usually have scientific research and monitoring activities as well
      • positives
        • protects biodiversity and especially endemic species
        • more opportunities for scientific research
          • Charles Darwin foundation
        • tries to resolve conflict between different players
      • negatives
        • decisions are made slowly due to many different players
        • some ecosystem degradation takes place
        • pollution, tourism and climate change are still threatening Galapagos
      • examples
        • Galapagos
          • fishing bans we introduced to allow aqua life to recover and increase in their populations
            • as this was successful fishing quotas have been put in place
          • tourist tax
            • ensures their isn't a surplus of tourists
            • can be spent on conservation eg replanting
    • Conservation
      • In-situ
        • conservation in the species natural habitat
      • ex-situ
        • conservation where species is taken out of natural habitat
          • captive breeding, zoos, biodiversity banks
      • example
        • The Millennium seed bank
          • conserves seeds as an insurance against the risk of extinction
          • banked 13% of the worlds  wild plant species
          • working with 80 partner countries
          • by 2025 they wish to conserve 25% of the worlds plant species
      • positives
        • stops plants becoming extinct
        • plants have the potential to provide scientific and medical research in the future
        • helps to increase global food security
      • negatives
        • releasing endangered species into the wild via captive breeding is problematic
        • zoos are unnatural and provide stress for the animal
          • provide more protection for iconic species rather than keystone species
        • species also rely on habitats for survival
        • £56 million needed a year to run seed bank
          • technology increase carbon pollution
    • Restoration
      • river Thames
        • tighter regulation of polluting from industry
        • restoration of the river by cleaning up the land
          • re-planting lost habitats
      • positive
        • 125 types of species
          • salmon, otter and sea trout returning
        • increase of tourism
        • provides more recreational and cultural services
        • increase in house prices
      • over 300 habitat enhancement projects
      • negatives
        • £1.5 million to clean up 24 km of river and 70km was cleaned
        • highly skilled workers needed, labour intensive
        • species might be threatened by climate change and invasive species in the future
        • maintenance costs needed in the future

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