Biodiversity hotspots and threats

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  • Biodiversity hotspots and threats
    • Southwest Australia
      • Southwest Australia's ecoregion stretches from Shark Bay on the Western coast to Esperance on the Southern coast.
        • Biodiversity
          • Its biodiversity exceeds that of the Great Barrier Reef, yet less than 1%of the region is protected.
          • The western swamp turtle, which hibernates for nearly 8 months of the year, is one of the most threatened freshwater species in the world.
          • 2948 endemic plant species.
      • Threats
        • Agricultural expansion and high levels of fertiliser use have been the main cause of habitat loss.
        • The introduction of invasive alien species, such as foxes and cats,are a major threat to native fauna.
        • Traditionally bushfires are used for the clearing and hunting of land.
        • 93% of the original vegetation has been replaced by wheat  and 80% of the Swan Coastal Plain has been cleared for urban development such as the city of Perth
          • Perth is projected to more than double in size to 4.3 million people by 2056.
        • 70–80% of the original wetlands on the plain are estimated to have been cleared, drained or filled since European settlement.
    • The Caucasus
      • At the border of Europe and Asia- situated between the black and Caspian Sea
      • Biodiversity
        • 6400 species of plants, 1600 are endemic
        • The Caucasian leopard is the rarest species in the region, less than 100.
        • The Cuacasian turs are threatened endemic species.
      • Threats
        • Recent economic and political crises in the region are intensifying forest clearances for fuelwood.
        • Lower plains are experiencing the greatest destruction
        • Illegal hunting and plant collecting  further threaten biodiversity in this region.
        • Led to habitat degradation, a decline of species population and distribution.
    • Atlantic Forest
      • Stretches from Brazil, Northern Argentina and South-eastern Paraguay
        • Biodiversity
          • Over 20,000 plants species and 950 different kinds of birds.
          • 200 bird species that are endemic.
          • World's leading primate biodiversity.
          • Contains 8% of the world's plants.
          • 8000 endemic plant species.
        • Threats
          • Less than 10% of the original forest remains.
          • 24+ critically endangered vertebrate species are clinging for survival.
          • 60% of Brazil's animals are threatened e.g. Wooly spider monkey.
          • Habitat loss caused by the development and expansion of sugarcane and coffee plantations.
            • Has been losing habitat for hundreds of years.
              • Land conversion to pasture, agriculture and forest plantations.
          • Pressure from illegally built housing, illegal logging and extractive activities.
    • Indo-Burma
      • Pivotal are encompassing different countries of tropical Asia.
        • Biodiversity
          • 6 large mammal species have been discovered in the last 12 years e.g. leaf deer and Grey shanked duke.
          • High number of endemic freshwater turtle species.
          • 1300 different bird species.
        • Threats
          • One of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots due to rates of exploitation and habitat loss.
          • Land is used for agricultural needs esp. in the last 5 years due to pop. growth.
          • Cash crops are replacing low-land forests.
    • Philippines
      • 7100+ make up the Philippines hotspot.  Located within the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'.
        • Biodiversity
          • One of the World's most biologically rich countries.
          • 6000 plant species and many birds.
          • Many endemic species cover 7% of the hotspot e.g. Panther flying frog.
        • Threats
          • Many endemic species are confined to forest fragments that cover only 7% of the original extent of the hotspot.
            • No green corridors.
          • Water and air pollution; oil spills.

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