- Billings: Case study: Coal Miners and textile workers in the 1920s and 1930s in Kentucky (America)
- Both were working class, evangelical, protestants.
- More militant in fighting for recognition.
- Benefited from the leadership of "organic intellectuals."
- Could meet at independent churches to hold meetings.
- Churches kept their morale high by supportive sermons, prayer meetings and group signings.
- Textile workers
- Accepted the status quo without complaints.
- Lacked leadership of "organic intellectuals," and were easily influenced by the views of the clergy who identified with the employers and denounced unions as "ungodly."
- Lacked spaces and remained in company churches that were under the control of the textile mill owners.
- Met with opposition of local church members who branded them as communists.
- Religion either supported or challenged hegemony by:
- Religion can play a "prominent oppositional role."
- His study shows that the same religion can be called upon either to defend the status quo or to justify the struggle to change it.
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