Bartlett & Burton: Introduction to Education Studies

  • Created by: chlopayne
  • Created on: 09-12-19 11:50
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  • 1944-1965: Universal Secondary Education
    • The Butler Education Act 1944 established a universal system of secondary education
      • It defined the primary and secondary split.
    • Primary until age 11, where they learnt basic skills of the 'three R's'
      • Secondary ed was according to age, aptitude and ability. It was a right to all, rather than ability to pay.
        • Giving the expectation that working class children have access to complete and high quality education.
    • The 11 plus test was put in place, which tested ability and aptitude in order to set for secondary education
    • The tripartite system was put into place, as proposed by the Norwood Committee (1943)
      • Grammar: academic.
      • Tech: practical
      • Modern: Fit neither.
      • Different types of curriculum were deemed to be relevant for these pupils.
    • Leaving age to 15 in 1947
    • 1940-50s: system lost credibility and continued to have inequalities.
      • Validity of selection process / 11+ was questioned.
        • Some students were coached for 11+ - not accurate of innate ability.
      • Social factors played a powerful role in which secondary school a child went to.
        • Working class failing to succeed.
      • Grammar school seen as superior, due to being academic.
      • Parents who had career aspirations for their children needed them to take O Level exams.
        • Designed for top 40% of pupils. Led to A Levels, which was only offered in grammar schools.
      • Parental pressure increased, especially middle class.
      • Separate schools began to be questioned.
        • Academic pupils were also practical.
        • Few technical schools built.
          • Pupils were seen as too bright for modern but not good enough for grammar. However, this doesn't equal practical.
      • Interest to abolish 11+ grew.
        • Expressed by left wing demands for education of public schools.
          • New comprehensive system.
    • 1965 - comprehensive school was established. Breakthrough in quality of opportunity.


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