Citizenship Education - Policy and Practice


What is Citizenship?

  • involves playing an active part in society.
  • about being a part of a state/nation.
  • citizenship is the process to becoming such a member. It is how we make society work.
  • what we put into society is what makes society what it is - why it is so important.

Citizenship Education.


Citizens (active).


Society is shaped.

(citizenship education a means to bring about society change?)

Ideal Cosmopolitan Citizenship quote - Kaldor (2003).

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Citizenship Issues

- 'Real-Life'.

- Controversial.

- Topical.

- Moral.

- Sensetive.

Teachers unsure of some areas and won't touch due to lack of knowledge or sensetivity of the subject. This leaves gaps in pupil's citizenship education. Is this the point of cit. edu.?

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Benefits/Aims of Citizenship Education to Young Pe

  • gives pupils a voice.
  • develops self-confidence.
  • develops empathy and awareness.
  • allows positive contributions to be made.


The development of the above is being pushed by Scottish Government and the Scottish education system, especially with the introduction of CfE and the Four Capacities.


Aims: - politically literate.

- community involvement and activism.

- develop positive attitudes and values.

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Citizenship Education in Scotland + National Ident

Citizenship education became part of Scottish Education in 2002 after report recommended that it should be embedded in the curriculum.


Citizenship Education in Scotland taught:

  • cross-curricular.
  • subjects.
  • CfE.
  • other initiatives.

Although mainly coming from social subjects, it isn't only taught there. It is holistic.


"racial, cultural, language and religious often influence whether she is viewed as a citizen within her society." (Banks et al, 2005) 

- what are the implications of this?

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Citizenship Edu. in other Countries


  • there is a citizenship subject rather than cross-curricular.
  • means education can be targeted but you lose contextual education of citizenship.



  • have civics education from elementary to high school as a distinct subject.
  • 45/50 states make time in school day to the Pledge of Allegiance
    • Is this citizenship education?
    • What are the benefits, if any?
    • Is this the best use of time in the school day?
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