- BADDELEY (1966) LTM ENCODING STUDY EXPERIMENT 3 (Description)
- Aim: - The aim of the study was to see if there would be memory impairment in LTM when the words acoustically similar than when the words have the same meaning. - To find out how LTM encodes.
- Procedure: - males & females - volunteer sample - 72 ppts - Psychology Research Unit - Independent groups design was used ->participants were put in 1 of the 4 conditions (1 of the 4 word lists) - words were presented by a projector and were visible for 3 seconds - They were then given a 6 digit sequence recall task. - Followed by recall of the list - There were 4 trials in total - They were then given a 15 minute interference task involving copying the order of the digits. - They were then given a surprise recall test.
- Results: - In LTM: Acoustically similar words were difficult to recall during the initial phase. However there was very little difference between acoustically similar and acoustically dissimilar words. - In LTM: When words were semantically similar it was difficult to recall them than when the words were semantically dissimilar. They tended to recall fewer semantically similar words.
- Conclusion: - The experiment shows that STM and LTM encode differently. STM is least affected by semantic information but not so good with acoustic information. - It is evident that LTM encodes semantically as participants found it hard to maintain the semantic information than the acoustic information.
- - Learning of word sequences impaired by semantic similarity. - LTM based on semantic encoding. - Transferral to LTM, involves an intermediate stage where material is in STM. This was shown by greater difficulty in learning list in Experiment 3 when STM is minimised. - Previous studies suggest STM based on acoustic encoding,