gcse science biology unit B5

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 24-05-13 14:44
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  • B5
    • lung disease
      • respiratory tract
        • bronchi
          • lined mucus and cilia
            • trachea
            • cilia beat pushing microbe mucus out as phlegm
            • sometimes get past defence and infection
        • trachea
      • prone to infection as dead end
      • caused by
        • industrial materials
          • asbestos
            • inflammation and scarring limits gas exchange
        • genetic
          • cystic fibrosis
            • thick sticky mucus clogs up bronchioles
        • lifestyle
          • smoking
            • cells divide and tumour reduces SA
        • asthma
          • over sensitive lungs
            • muscles contract constrict airways
    • digestion
      • big molecules
        • smaller molecules
          • blood plasma/lymph
      • physical digestion
        • provides large SA for chemical
      • chemical digestion
        • enzymes catalyse and break down big molecules
      • carbohydrases
        • starch to maltose to glucose
        • mouth and small intestine
      • proteases
        • proteins to amino acids
        • stomach and small intestine
      • lipases
        • fats to fatty acids and glycerol
          • lymph
            • lymphatic system
              • blood
        • small intestine
          • adapted
            • long- for time
            • villi projections - large SA
              • micro villi- SA
            • single permeable surface cells
      • right conditions
        • stomach-acidic
        • mouth, s. intestine- alkaline
      • bile
        • made (liver) stored (gall bladder)
        • improves fat digestion
        • emulsification
          • small droplets
            • bigger SA
        • alkaline
          • neutralises before s.intestine
    • the kidneys
      • functions
        • remove urea
        • adjust salt levels  and blood water
      • blood filtered through nephrons
        • ultrafiltration
          • high pressure forces U,S,W,G into capsules
            • membranes between  blood vessels glomerus  and capsules filter
              • big molecules- protein, red BC stay in blood
        • reabsorbtion
          • useful substances
            • all sugar by active transport
          • sufficient salt and water according to ADH hormone
        • released waste
          • urine into ureter
            • bladder
    • waste removal
      • controlled by kidneys
        • anti-diuretic hormone  (ADH)
          • controlled by pituitary gland to release
            • negative feedback
              • ADH released when water loss detected
          • amount of urine depends on
            • heat
              • sweat= water loss
            • exercise
              • sweat= water loss
            • water
              • no drinking= concentrated
      • dialysis
        • regular
        • fluid acts like blood plasma
        • waste products  diffuse out
          • selectively permeable membrane
            • dialysis fluid in
              • takes in waste products
        • same concen, of sodium and glucose
          • not lost from blood
    • menstrual cycle
      • start- uterus lining breaks  down
        • 4-14- builds up again
          • 14- ovulation- egg released
            • 14-28- if no egg fertilised spongy lining breaks and cycle starts
      • controlled by 4 hormones
        • FSH
          • pituitary gland
            • egg develop in one ovary
            • stim. ovaries produce oestrogen
        • oestrogen
          • ovaries
            • uterus lining repairs
            • stim. LH release of egg and inhibits FSH
        • LH
          • pituitary gland
            • stim. release of egg day 14
            • indirect stim. progesterone
        • progesterone
          • ovaries
            • maintains lining, levels fall so does lining
            • inhibits LH
      • negative feedback affect controls hormones
        • one concen too high- another released
    • controlling fertility
      • contraceptive pill
        • oestrogen
          • mimics pregnancy
          • inhibits FSH
      • infertility treatments
        • artificial insemination
          • sperm injected to uterus
        • FSH injections
          • stimulate egg production
        • In Vitro Fertilisation
          • fertilised outside body
            • hormones to stimulate egg production
              • collected and mixed with sperm
                • need- sperm, eggs, healthy uterus
          • unused eggs thrown away
          • inc. chance of multiple pregnancy- damage mothers health
        • Ovary Transplants
      • screening foetuses
        • amniocentesis
          • fluid surrounding taken out and analysed
            • if genetic defect parents question
            • increase risk of miscarriage
    • growth influences
      • diet- proteins+minerals
      • exercise- stimulates HGH- stimulates long bone growth
      • hormones/ genetics- giantism
    • people live longer than used to
      • medicine, safer, diet, less disease

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