Augustine

  • Created by: _bella_
  • Created on: 29-01-19 14:08
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  • Augustine on Human Nature
    • Influenced the development of Western Christianity
    • Relationships prior to The Fall
      • A+E were married as friends. This friendship included reproduction AND the pleasure of sex. 
      • Sex is secondary to friendship. Friendship is the highest expression of human existence “there is nothing truly enjoyable without a friend”.
      • Sex could occur without lust. The will is perfectly tuned with the body
    • Relationship after The Fall- Divided Will
      • For they would not have arrived at the evil act if an evil will had not preceded it
      • The will is divided and is in conflict with itself
      • Through reason, we know what is good but we are motivated by desire (concupiscence), rather than good
    • Grace
      • The rebellious will and sin can only be overcome by God’s love  (grace). Only then can the supreme good (summum bonum) be achieved.
    • Grace according to Pelagius
      • Believed humans can overcome personal sin with free will.
      • Original sin does NOT cause universal guilt that can only be removed by God
    • Rousseau
      • “Man in born free, and everywhere he is in chains”
      • The purpose of our society should be to remove barriers that resulted in our loss of freedom and try and regain our natural state as helpful, just and social beings
    • Hobbes
      • The natural state of humans is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”
      • Humans are, different from animals in that they recognise if they co-operate with each other life can become more tolerable
    • Original Sin
      • Belief that despite being made in God’s image (imago dei), we carry sin, due to The Fall
        • Passed on through sexual intercourse due to Human selfishness, lack of free will, lack of stability and corruption in society
        • Bishop Julian (a Pelagian) argues Aug’s pessimistic view of human nature shows a hatred of God’s creative work.

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