Psychology A2 Attachment

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  • Created by: Abigail
  • Created on: 18-09-13 08:38
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  • Attachment
    • Attachment is the strong and emotional bond, formed between an infant and their caregiver.
      • You can see this emotional bond when the infant is seperated from the caregiver and shows distress (such as crying)
    • Bowlby
      • Bowlby believed that attachment in humans is a result of evoloutionary pressures.
        • Bowlby also believed that infants familiarity and interations with a particular person would result in attachment.
          • Bowly believed in monotopism which is the innate bias to form an inital attachment with one person, usually the mother
    • Frued believed that attachment was linked to his oral stage of development. He believed that babies become attached to the person who feeds them
      • The learning theory of attachment also agreed that attachment is a product of feeding. The person who feeds an infant become a secondary reinforcer through their association with the primary reinforcer of food.
    • Harlow and Harlow, aswell as Schaffer and Emerson gave evidence against the argument that attachment occures through feeding.
      • Hawlow wanted to find out whether an infant monkey would show attachment to an item that prodived food, or comofrt/
        • He did this by providing 2 mesh cylinders, one with a blanket to provide comfort, the other with a nipple to provide milk.
          • Harlow found that the monkeys spent more time on the 'comofrt cylinders' especially when scared, and only went to the food cylinders when feeding.
            • Harlow concluded that reinforcment through the provision of food is not the main determiner of attachment.
      • Harlow
        • Evaluation
          • Harlow and Harlow's study provided important findings on the theory of attachment.
            • However, the study does raise ethical concerns about the treatment of animals being used.
      • Shafferon and Emerson
        • Shaffer and Emerson observed 60 babies from mainly working class homes for a period of about a year.
          • They found that the infact the infants were not attached the most with the person who fed them, but they were most attached to the person who interacted with them the most.
        • Evaluation
          • Due to the study being carried out over a year (this makes it a longitudinal study) and therefore is more reliable.
      • Imprinting involves newly born animals becoming attached to the first thing they see that moves.
        • Lorenz (1935) saw attachment as having a critical period in which it must develop.
          • In ducks he saw this as the first few hours after hatching, and called this phenonomen 'imprinting'
            • He tested this theory through limpting new born birds to himself only, which resulted in the ducks impriting on Lorenz.
      • Atatchment is different from imprinting in the sense that it develops overtime and is due to positive interations betweem am infant and their caregiver.
        • Whereas impriting is one way animals become attached to their 'mothers' and happens instantly when they are first born/


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