Atoms and reactions

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  • Atoms and Reactions
    • Atomic Structure
      • atomic number
        • number of protons in the nucleus
      • mass number
        • number of particles (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus
      • electrons
        • 0 mass, 1- charge
      • neutrons
        • 1 mass, 0 charge
      • protons
        • 1 mass, 1+ charge
    • Atomic masses
      • relative isotopic mass
        • mass of an atom of an isotope
      • relative atomic mass
        • weighted mean mass of an atom of an element
        • (% abundance)/ 100 X mass number
      • relative molecular mass
        • weighted mean mass of a molecule
      • relative formula mass
        • weighted mean mass of a formula unit
    • The mole
      • amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12 isotope
      • Avogadro constant
        • 6.02x10^23
    • Types of formula
      • Empirical formula
        • 1) find the molar ratio of atoms
          • 2) divide by the smallest number
            • 3) write empirical formula
        • 2) divide by the smallest number
          • 3) write empirical formula
      • Molecular formula
        • 1) empirical formula
          • 2) number of CH2 units in a molecule= Mr/empirical
            • 3) molecular formula= no of units X CH2
        • 2) number of CH2 units in a molecule= Mr/empirical
          • 3) molecular formula= no of units X CH2
    • Standard solutions
      • 1) find the amount in mol
        • 2) convert mols to grams=    m=n xM
      • 2) convert mols to grams=    m=n xM
    • Moles and reactions
      • Reacting masses
        • 1) work out amount in moles
          • 2) compare against equations
            • 3) m=n x M
        • 2) compare against equations
          • 3) m=n x M
      • Reacting masses and gas volumes
        • 1) amount in moles
          • 2) compare against equations
            • 3) V = n x 24
        • 2) compare against equations
          • 3) V = n x 24
    • Water of crystallisation
      • 1) amount in mol of anhydrous
        • 2) amount in mol of water
          • 3) determine ratio
      • 2) amount in mol of water
        • 3) determine ratio
    • Titration calculations
      • always work out amount in mol
      • compare against equation
      • use appropiate formula
    • Oxidation numbers
      • uncombined element = 0
      • combined oxygen= -2
      • combined hydrogen= +1
      • simple ion = charge on ion
      • combined fluorine = -1

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