Atomic Structure and Isotopes

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  • Atomic Structure and isotopes
    • Definitions
      • Atom: the simplest part of an element
      • Molecule: two or more atoms covalently bonded
      • Ion: a charged particle
      • Compound: two or more elements bonded
      • Isotope: atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons
    • Determining properties
      • Isotopes have the same chemical properties because same electron configuration
      • NEUTRONS determine PHYSICAL properties
      • ELECTRONS determine CHEMICAL properties
      • Different elements have different chemical properties because different electron configuration
      • Isotopes have different physical properties because different number of neutrons
      • Higher mass = higher density, melting and boiling point
    • Basics
      • Nearly all of an atom's mass in in the nucleus
      • The overall charge on an atom is 0
      • The number of protons identifies the element
      • Cations have lost electrons and have fewer e- than p+ so are positive
      • Anions have gained electrons and have more e- than p+ so are negative
      • Ions: same number of protons, different number of electrons
    • Heavy water
      • Heavy water contains 2H isotope, D
      • Super heavy water contains 3H isotope, T
      • Physical properties differ due to different number of neutrons
      • The more neutrons, the higher the mass
      • The higher the mass the higher the boiling point, melting point and density
    • Subatomic particles
      • Protons have a relative charge of 1+
      • Protons have a relative mass of 1
      • Neutrons have a relative charge of 0
      • Neutrons have a relative mass of 1
      • Electrons have a relative charge of 1-
      • Electrons have a relative mass of 1/2000
  • Determining properties
    • Isotopes have the same chemical properties because same electron configuration
    • NEUTRONS determine PHYSICAL properties
    • ELECTRONS determine CHEMICAL properties
    • Different elements have different chemical properties because different electron configuration
    • Isotopes have different physical properties because different number of neutrons
    • Higher mass = higher density, melting and boiling point

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