AS Theories

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  • AS Theories
    • H.P.Grice - Maxims (PRAGMATICS)
      • Quantity: Gives enough info, not too much or too little
      • Quality: Don't say false info, don't say what you have no audience for
      • Manner: Avoid ambiguity, be orderly so you can be understood
      • Relevance: Relevant info to ongong context of the convo
    • Robin Lakoff - Politeness Principles
      • 1.) Don't Impose: Formal politness, often interior speaking to superior.
      • 2.) Offer options: Informal politeness, avoid forcing other person into a corner
      • 3.) Encourage feelings of Camaraderie:Friendly or intimate politeness, shows interest, trust
    • Brown & Levinson - Face Theory
      • Positive face: Showing people they are liked & admired. We want them to like us
      • Negative face: Avoid intruding on peoples lives,  taking care not to impose our presence
      • Face Threatening Acts:
        • Off Record: hinting/using implicature to try & avoid clear intent
        • On Record/Baldly: confront, unambiguously express a single communicative intention
          • Negative: avoidance based, respecting negative face wants
          • Positive politeness: approach-based, sharing same positive face wants
    • Tannen - Gender
      • DIFFERENCEMODEL - men and women speak differently
        • Support Intimacy Understandin Feelings Proposals Compromise
      • Status  IndependencAdvice Information Orders Conflict
    • Lakoff - Womens Language
      • DOMINANCE MODEL - women are subordinated and disempowered
        • TOP 10:
          • *Hedges *Super polite forms *Tag questions *Speaking in italics (intonation) *Empty adjectives *Hypercorrectgrammar & pronunciation *Lacks sense of humour *Direct quotation (men paraphrase more) *Special lexicon *Question intonation in declarative statement
    • Labov - Oral Narratives of Personal Experience
      • 1) Abstract - what the story will be about 2) Orientation - intro, background info 3) Complicating Action - thing that caused the event to happen 4) Evaluation - just ahead of big moment 5) Result/Resolution - how we got out of story 6) Coda - statement returning to present
    • Giles - Accommodation Theory (TENOR)
      • Convergence:Moving our speech closer to that of the other person (more common, effects social distance)
        • Downward: Toning speech down to fit with lower class - make it informal
        • Upward: Toning speech up to fit with upper class
      • Divergence: People's speech moves further apart
    • Goffman - DramaturgicalModel
      • Frontstage: aware of being watched/judged, deliberate about word choice
      • Backstage: less guarded, more informal,less conscious about word choice
      • Impression Management:deliberately giving impressions, trying to control the impression you give to others
    • Power
      • Address forms: Honorific/Titles (sir, your highness) vs diminutives (Jules, Dave)
      • Naming: noun description, pronouns, turntaking, address form. Blaming: agency, inc avoidance by passives and nominalisation, process types, participant roles. Framing: agenda setting inc. initialising pairs, attitude, hedging, likelihood and obligation, adjectives


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