Aristotle

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  • Aristotle
    • 4 causes
      • Efficient Cause = the cause of an object or thing existing
      • Formal Cause = what gives the matter its 'form' or 'structure'
      • Final Cause = why something is the way it is
      • Material Cause = the matter or substance that something is made from
    • Prime mover
      • the final cause of everything
      • pure actuality with no potential to change
      • immutable
      • not lacking in quality
      • purely good
      • existence is necessary - cannot fail to exist
      • everything is in a state of motion. change is always cause by something else. everything is in a state of potentiality and actuality
        • what was meant by potentiality and actuality was that a cup of hot coffee is actually hot but potentially cold and whilst a child is actually a child, they are potentially an adult
    • God
      • for Aristotle, the prime mover is God, God is pure actuality
      • the prime mover is the leader and order within the universe
      • the prime mover is impersonal and does not act in the world but is instead transcendent and eternal - big different with God of classical theism
    • Plato
      • Aristotle rejects a dualist view of the world and Plato's understanding of the soul
      • Aristotle rejected the forms and on reason was the relationship between the forms and objects in the physical world were never really made
      • although Aristotle appreciated the teachings from Plato, he rejected the Forms as Aristotle focused on the physical world and empirical evidence
    • Issues
      • cannot be completely like God because God is said to act in the world and people experience him
      • there doesn't have to be a final cause. the universe could just be there with no real cause or purpose
      • the relationship between the prime mover and the universe is unclear, whilst the prime mover is seen as transcendent
  • everything is in a state of motion. change is always cause by something else. everything is in a state of potentiality and actuality
    • what was meant by potentiality and actuality was that a cup of hot coffee is actually hot but potentially cold and whilst a child is actually a child, they are potentially an adult
  • although Aristotle appreciated the teachings from Plato, he rejected the Forms as Aristotle focused on the physical world and empirical evidence
  • Issues
    • cannot be completely like God because God is said to act in the world and people experience him
    • there doesn't have to be a final cause. the universe could just be there with no real cause or purpose
    • the relationship between the prime mover and the universe is unclear, whilst the prime mover is seen as transcendent

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