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  • Applied Anatomy and Physiology
    • Skeletal System
      • for support and shape
        • contains a rigid bone frame. shape due to the skeleton
      • also for protection
        • bones are tough- protect vital organs eg rib cage protects lungs
      • movement
        • muscles attached to bones by tendons can move bones at the joint
      • making blood cells and platelets
        • bones contain bone marrow. red blood cells important during exercise- transport oxygen to muscles
      • mineral storage
        • bones store minerals like calcium and phosphorus
      • flat bones
        • Cranium (Protects Brain)
        • Sternum + Ribs protect heart and lungs
        • Scapula - protects the shoulder joint
        • Pelvis - protects reproductive organs
      • Short Bones
        • Carpals - form the wrist and provide stability
        • Tarsals - bear the bodies weight when on foot (walking or running
      • Long Bones
        • Clavicle - part of shoulder joint
        • Humerus - used by mucsles to use whole arm
        • Ulna + Radius - used by muscles to move lower arm
        • Femur- used by muscles to move whole body
        • Fibula + Tibia - move lower leg
        • Metacarpals - allows the hand to grip
        • Phalanges - move and bend the fingers and toes
        • Metatarsals - allows movement from the foot
      • Different Joint Movements
        • Flexion - closing of a joint
        • Extension - opening of a joint
        • Adduction - movement towards the body
        • Abduction - movement away from the body
        • Rotation - movement around  the joint
        • Circumduction- movement of a limb in a circular motion
        • Plantar-Flexion extension at the ankle
        • Untitled
      • Connective Tissues
        • Ligaments- hold bones together
        • Tendons - attach muscles to bones
        • Cartilage - acts as cushion between bones - eg knee joint
    • Muscular System
      • Bicep - flexion allows curling weights
      • Triceps - extension pairs bicep
      • Pectorals - adduction and flexion at the shoulder
      • Hip Flexors - flexion at hip helps lift knees when running
      • Gluteals - extension, rotation and abduction of hip
      • Trapezius - extension at neck, eg tilting head back
      • Deltoid - flexion, extension, abduction or circumduction at shoulder (front crawl in swimming)


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