Anthropology

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  • Anthropology
    • Things a skeleton can tell you!
      • violent injuries
      • knife wounds (bone marks)
      • burned
      • chemicals (etching)
      • age (femur length)
      • sex (pelvis)
      • job
      • diseases
      • pathology
      • broken bones
      • nutrition in childhood - rickets - bowed legs
      • teeth
    • Vegetation grows around a dead body/skeleton
    • Taphonomy
      • The study of the conditions and processes by which organisms become fossilized. The conditions and processes of fossilization.
      • post mortem fate of remains
    • The study of human skeletal remains to determine sex, age, race and time of death in an effort to identify an individual
      • Includes newer topics of facial recognition and age progession
      • anthros is greek for "humankind or man" and logos means "the study of"
    • Determination of Sex
      • pelvis
        • females have a wider subpubic angle, wider sciatic notch and broad pelvic inlet
      • Cranium (skull)
        • crests and ridges more pronounced in males
        • chin more square in males
        • mastoid process wide and robust in males
        • forehead slopes more in males
    • Determination of Race
      • Cranium (skull)
        • Three categories
          • Mongoloid (all of Asian descent and native american descent)
            • wider cheekbones, concave incisors and width between eyes greatest
          • Negroid (everyone of African descent and West Indian descent)
            • more prominent ridges, wider nasal opening
          • Caucasian (all "white" individuals)
            • narrow everything
    • Determination of Age
      • Ages 0-5: teeth are best - forensic odontology
        • Odontology
          • identification of bite marks on victims
          • comparison of bite marks with teeth of a suspect
          • identification of unknown bodies through dental records
          • age estimations of skeletal remains
          • victim identification through DNA analysis
      • Ages 6-25: epiphyseal fusin which is fusion of bone ends to bone shaft
      • Ages 24-40: very hard
      • Ages 40+ periodontal disease, arthritis, breakdown of pelvis, occupational stress and unique clues
    • Determination of Stature from Bones
      • Long bone length (femur, tibia, humerus) is proportional to height
      • racial background needs to be known before estimating the height of the individual
      • calculation used: males (1.88 x femur length in inches) + 32.01 females: (1.945 x femur length in inches) + 28.70
    • Facial reconstruction
      • obtain skull
        • add tissue depth markers
          • begin to add common fat deposits and underlying muscles
            • add muscle to average depth for race
              • add skin, nose and ears
                • add features related to age and race (wrinkles, eyes and hair colour)
                  • add clothing
    • Fractures
      • types of fractures
        • transverse
          • Spiral
            • Greenstick
              • open/compound
            • Traction
        • Oblique
          • Comminuted
            • Impacted
              • Closed/simple
            • Compression

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