Antenatal Screening

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  • ANTENATAL SCREENING
    • BLOOD TESTS
      • Iron content
        • Mother's blood
          • Indicate anaemia
      • Blood grouping
        • ABO
        • Rehsus
      • Spina bifida
        • levels of AFP
          • alphafetoprote-in
    • AMNIOCENT-ESIS
      • Small amounts of amniotic fluid drawn from amniotic sac
      • Fluid sent to be chemically analysesd
        • Skin cell culture
      • 16 - 18 weeks of pregnancy
      • Foetus detected on ultrasound
        • Allows insertion of hollow needle
          • Needle penetrates amniotic sac through uterine wall
            • No anaesthetic
      • Increases risk of miscarriage 1%
      • Results take 3 - 4 weeks
        • Cells have to be grown
      • Mainly used to identify chromosomal abnormalities
    • CHRONIC VILLUS SAMPLING
      • First 12 weeks of pregnancy
      • Usually due to family history
      • Chronic villi have same genetic make up as foetus
        • Can be cultured directly for chromosomal analysis
      • Takes 30 minutes
      • Hollow cannula
        • Access through vagina (endoscope)
        • Access through uterus wall
          • Ultrasound to locate placenta
      • 1 - 2% increase risk of miscarriage, bleeding, or infection
      • Downs syndrome
      • Sickle cell disorders
      • Haemophillia
      • Thalassemia
      • Muscular dystrophy

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