Animal Ethics (Studies)

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  • Animal Ethics (Studies)
    • Harlow & Zimmerman (1959)
      • Distress caused during procedure
      • Monkeys unable to develop socially with other members of the same species
      • 'Picked on' by other monkeys who saw them as submissive/timid
    • Pavlov (1903)
      • Confinement of dogs for long periods in restraints
      • Surgery on dogs to open the oesophagus, making swallowing impossible - causing pain/discomfort
    • Skinner (1930)
      • Expt used only 8 pigeons, so to some extent adheres to requirement of using as few animals as possible
      • Pigeons are not an endangered species, so are a suitable species to use according to the guidelines
      • Such a study could possibly be carried out on humans and alternatives should always be sought
      • Each pigeon was starved to 75% of their body weight. This caused undue stress since as long as the bird wanted food, the study could have been carried out at their normal feeding time
    • Randrup & Munkvad (1966)
      • Amphetamines injected into rats to induce schizophrenic symptoms clearly causes stress/discomfort




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