Animal Cell Structure

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  • Animal Cell Structure
    • Plasma Membrane
      • Membrane found on surface of animal cell. Mainly made of lipids and protein.
      • Regulates movement of substances into/out.
      • Receptor molecules, respond to chemicals e.g. hormones.
    • Nucleus
      • Large Organelle
      • Surrounded by nuclear envelope containing many pores
        • Pores allow substances (RNA) move between nucleus and cytoplasm
      • Contains chromatin and often a nucleolus
        • Chromatin made from proteins and DNA
        • Nucleolus makes ribosomes
    • Lysosome
      • Round organelle, surrounded by membrane
        • Membrane keeps enzymes separate from cytoplasm
      • No clear internal structure
      • Contains digestive enzymes, used to digest invading cells/break down worn out components.
    • Ribosome
      • Very small organelle
      • Floats free in cytoplasm or attached to RER
      • Site of protein synthesis
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • 2 types:
        • Smooth ER
          • Synthesises and processes lipids
        • Rough ER
          • Folds and processes proteins made at the ribosomes
      • System of membranes enclosing fluid-filled space
      • RER covered in ribosomes, SER not.
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Group of fluid-filled flattened sacs
      • Processes and packages new lipids and proteins
      • Makes lysosomes
    • Microvilli
      • Folds in the plasma membrane
      • Increase surface area for more efficient absorption
    • Mitochondrian
      • Usually oval shaped
      • Double membrane, inner is folded forming cristae
      • Inside is the matrix
        • Contains enzymes involved in respiration
      • Site of aerobic respiration
      • Reflect the activeness of the cell - more active = more present


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