Hormones 3 - Revision

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  • Animal Coordination, Control and Homeostasis
    • Homeostasis- Control of Blood Glucose
      • Maintaining a constant internal environment
      • 1 Conditions in your body need to be kept steady- this is important as your cells need right conditions in order to function properly.
      • 2 To maintain a constant internal environment, your body needs to respond to both internal and external changes whilst balancing inputs with outputs
      • 3 Examples of homeostasis include:
        • * Blood glucose- you need to make sure the amount of glucose in your blood doesn't get too high or low
          • * Osmoregulation (regulating water content)- you need to keep a balance of water you gain (in food, drink and from respiration) and the water you pee, sweat and breathe out
            • * Thermoregulation (regulating body temperature)- you need to reduce your body temperature when you're hot, but increase it when the environment is cold
      • Insulin and Glucagon control Blood Glucose Concentration
        • 1 Eating foods containing carbohydrate puts glucose into the blood from the small intestine
        • 2 The normal metabolism of cells remove glucose from the blood
        • 3 Vigorous exercise removes much more glucose from the blood
        • 4 Excess glucose can be stored as glycogen in the liver and in the muscles
        • 5 When these stores are full then the excess glucose is stored as lipid (fat) in the tissues
        • 6 Changes in blood glucose are monitored ad controlled by the pancreas, using the hormone insulin and glucagon
    • Diabetes
      • Type 1 Diabetes- Caused by a Lack of Insulin
        • 3 As well as insulin therapy, people with type 1 diabetes also need to think about:
          • * Limiting the intake of foods rich in simple carbohydrates i.e. sugars (which cause the blood sugar glucose level to rise rapidly)
            • * Taking regular exercise- this helps to remove excess glucose from the blood
        • 2 A person with type 1 diabetes will need to be treated with insulin therapy- this usually involves injecting insulin into the blood
          • This is often done at mealtimes to make sure that the glucose is removed from the blood quickly once the food has been digested.
            • This stops the level of glucose in the blood from getting too high and is a very effective treatment
        • 1 Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the pancreas produces little or no insulin. The result is that a person's blood glucose can rise to a level that can kill them
      • Type 2 Diabetes- A person is Resistant to Insulin
        • 1 Type 2 diabetes is a condition where the pancras doesn't produce enough insulin or when a person becomes resistant to insulin
        • BMI = weight (kg) / (height(m))²
        • Waist- to- hip ratio = waist circumference (cm) / hip circumference (cm)
        • 4 Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise and losing weight if needed. Some people with type also have medication or an insulin injection
        • 2 People that arte obese have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes


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