Anatomy and Physiology

How many pairs of intercostal muscles are there?
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The process of inspiration is best described as?
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What stimulates the diaphragm to contract?
Phrenic Nerve
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What happens to pressure in the pleural cavity during expiration?
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What stimulates the intercostal muscles to contract?
Intercostal Nerves
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The process of expiration is best described as?
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What is the name of the large muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
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What happens to pressure in the pleural cavity during inspiration?
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Air comprises of what?
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapour
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What percentage of oxygen makes up air?
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What units are used to describe the measure of Atmospheric Pressure
MmHg (millimeters of mercury)
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Gaseous exchange occurs at alveoli and cellular level using what principle?
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External respiration can be described as?
The exchange of gases at alveoli level within the lungs
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Oxygen is transported in the blood by bind to? What does this form?
Binds to haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
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How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
as bicarbonate
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How is carbon dioxide converted to bicarbonate?
Carbon dioxide binds with water to form carbonic acid. Carbonic anhydrase catalyses the reaction where carbonic acid splits to form bicarbonate and H+ ions
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Where does the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate take place? Does it stay here?
Takes place in the red blood cell however bicarbonate then leaves the RBC and is transported in the blood
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What is the equation for conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate?
CO2 + H20 > H2CO3 > (carbonic anhydrase) > H+ ions + HCO3-
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The diffusion of O2 and CO2 at a cellular level described as?
Internal respiration
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What vessels carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs?
Left and right Pulmonary arteries
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Oxygenated blood is pumped out of which chamber of the heart and into which vessel?
Pumped out of the left ventricle via the aorta
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How many pairs of ribs does a rib cage have?
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When bones are connected by a disc of hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage, the joint is called a?
Cartilaginous joint
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Osteoblasts are responsible for?
Building bones
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What is not a main factor that contributes to the growth and health of bones? a) hormones, b) exercise, c) diet, d) sunlight, e) blood
e) blood
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Which of the following inserts on the arm? a) Biceps brachii, b) Trapezius, c) Latissimus dorsi, d) Vastus lateralis
a) Biceps brachii
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This muscle dorsiflexes the foot
Tibialis anterior
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A round or oval opening through a bone is a? a) Fissure, b) Condyle, c) Facet, d) Foramen
d) Foramen
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The axial skeleton contains the bones of the?
Skull, vertebral column & thoracic cage
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How is bone remodelling accomplished?
Osteoclasts break down matrix while osteoblasts form new bone matrix
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Which muscle extends the elbow?
Triceps brachii
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Which muscle divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities?
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Which muscle is the prime mover for hip flexion? a) Gluteus maximus, b) Hamstring group, c) iliopsoas, d) Quadriceps group, e) all the above
c) iliopsoas
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The concentric layers of the bone are known as? a) Lacunae, b) canaliculi, c) Volkmann's layers, d) lamellae
d) lamellae
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If in a sample of bone the lamellae are not arranged in osteons, then this sample is from the?
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When a person is standing on their toes, they are?
Plantar flexing
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When a person is kneeling they are?
flexing their leg
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Which muscle is considered the ideal site for an intramuscular injection?
Vastus lateralis
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How would severing the tendon attached to a muscle affect the muscle's ability to move a body part?
No movement is possible without a muscle to bone connection
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Contractions in which the muscle do not shorten are called?
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which bone articulates with the scapula at the glenoid cavity?
Head of the humerus
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The long bone is formed by?
two epiphysis, one diaphysis and two metaphysis
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True or false: Doing a medial rotation of the hand from anatomical position supinates the hand
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How many vertebrae form the vertebral column?
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Name the four types of bone?
1) Flat, 2) Short, 3) Irregular, 4) Long
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What are the names of the three types of muscle tissue?
1) Skeletal, 2) Cardiac, 3) Smooth
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What are the five functions of the bones?
1) Protection, 2) Movement, 3) Support, 4) Storage, 5) Haematopoiesis
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What types of bone tissue are in the skeleton?
Compact bone and Spongy bone
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A ligament connects?
Bone to bone
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What is the tough connective tissue that bound fascicles together?
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What structural characteristics does cardiac muscle tissue have that distinguishes it from skeletal muscle tissue?
cardiac muscle cells have intercalated discs, short T tubules and no triads
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The movement that moves my leg away from the midline of the body is called?
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A rounded articular projection is called a?
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What is a major function of skeletal muscle?
Maintaining body temperature, maintaining posture, storing nutrient reserves
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Describe the functional characteristics of cardiac tissue
Special gap junctions, intrinsic conduction system allows contraction without neural stimulation
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A cavity that is within a bone, filled with air, and lined with mucous membrane is?
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What is meant by a shoulder separation?
Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint
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Which bone of the arm corresponds to the femur of the leg?
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The bones of the skull develop from?
Fibrous connective tissue
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What is called the basic structure of the skeletal muscle?
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The first cervical vertabra is the?
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Name a synovial joint
Diarthrotic joint
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How would a drug that blocks acetylcholine release affect muscle contraction?
Contraction would be prevented
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What are the most important fucntion of the pelvic girdle?
Bearing weight
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How many bones are in the adult skeleton?
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Name the joint: Articular surfaces deep and secure; capsule heavily reinforced by ligaments and muscle tendons; extremely stable
Hip Joint
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What factors influence the stability of a synovial joint?
Shape of articular surfaces, presence of strong reinforcing ligaments and tone of surrounding muscles
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Other cards in this set

Card 2




The process of inspiration is best described as?

Card 3


Phrenic Nerve


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Card 4




Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Intercostal Nerves


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