Amino acids, Proteins and DNA revision mindmap

  • Created by: Laura0_0
  • Created on: 23-01-19 19:08
View mindmap
  • Amino acids, Proteins and DNA
    • Amino Acids
      • Structure
        • Amine group  - NH2
          • Protonated by acids
          • Acylation with acyl chlorides
          • Nucleophilic substitution with haloalkanes
        • Variable side chain
        • Carboxylic Acid group     - COOH
          • Deprotonated by bases
          • Esterification with alcohols
      • Naming
        • [carbon with amine group] - AMINO_____ANOIC ACID
          • Number from the end with the COOH group
      • Acid-Base properties
        • High pH
          • Anion COO-
        • Low pH
          • Cation NH3+
        • Isoelectric pH
          • Zwitterion NH3+ and COO-
            • Zwitterions also exist in the crystalline form of the amino acid
              • Both positive and negative parts, so ionic bonding occurs
      • Reactions
        • Nucleophilic Addition - Elimination
          • Warm an amino acid gently with acyl chloride
          • Forms an N-substituted amide
            • Warm an amino acid gently with acyl chloride
        • Esterification
          • Heat amino acid with ethanol and a few drops conc. H2SO4
    • Proteins
      • Structure
        • Primary
          • String of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
        • Secondary
          • Primary structure folds
          • Alpha helix
            • Held together by hydrogen bonds between C=O and N-H groups
              • Beta pleated
          • Beta pleated
        • Tertiary
          • 3D structure
          • ionic attractions, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waal's forces
          • If cysteine amino acids are present, disulphide bridges form
      • Formation
        • Condensation reaction between amino acids
          • Forms a peptide bond O=C-N-H
        • Hydrolysis
          • Uses enzymes or strong acid to break the peptide bond
          • Secondary and tertiary structures rapidly broken down and the chain unravels
          • Amino acids formed by protein hydrolysis can be identified by TLC
      • Enzymes
        • Biological catalyst
        • Large molecules
          • Mr above 10,000
        • Bind at active sites
        • Highly stereospecific so only one enantiomer catalyses the reaction
        • Inhibitors
          • Untitled
    • DNA
      • Structure
        • 2-deoxyribose sugar
          • Joined by condensation reaction at Carbon 5
            • Phosphate group PO4H3
              • Joined by condensation reaction at Carbon 1
                • One of 4 bases Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
        • Phosphate group PO4H3
          • Joined by condensation reaction at Carbon 1
            • One of 4 bases Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
        • Double helix shape formed by hydrogen bonding between bases
          • 2 H-bonds between A and T
          • 3 H-bonds between C and G
      • Anticancer drugs
        • Cisplatin
          • Effective drug against testicular cancer
          • Square planar transition metal complex containing Platinum
          • Forms coordinate bonds with guanine molecules (Ligand replacement reaction)
            • Guanine molecules on same strand
              • Distorts DNA shape, preventing replication
          • Also affects healthy cells that replicate frequently
            • Give low doses
            • Target only tumour cells
              • Reduces adverse effects
                • Give low doses
          • Isomer, transplatin, has no significant anticancer properties
        • Target cells that divide rapidly

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Amino acids, Proteins and DNA resources »