Alexander III- Reaction and Counter-Reform

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  • Alexander III- Reaction and Counter-Reform
    • Central Government
      • Alexander rejected the Loris-Melikov reform proposals his father had made
        • Ensured autocracy would in no way be altered
      • Published the "Manifesto of Unshakable Autocracy"
        • Ensured autocracy would in no way be altered
    • Police Crackdown
      • Tsar used the Third Section to hunt down political opposition
        • Within days of becoming Tsar, he had arrested 150 Populists and executed 5, responsible for his father's death
        • Overall, more than 10,000 opponents were arrested
      • Censorship was also tightened up
    • Land Captains (1889)
      • Land captains were local officials appointed by the tsar, usually chosen from the local nobility.
        • Overrule decisions made by the zemstva
        • Order physical punishments of anyone who failed to pay their tax
        • Punish small crimes
        • Appoint the volost courts (previously done by peasants)
      • Greatly undermined the power and independence of zemstvas whilst limiting the legal reforms of Alexander II
    • Legal Changes (1885)
      • Allowed the Tsar and his government to exercise greater control over the legal system
      • "Closed court sessions" were re-introduced for a number of crimes
        • The accused would be tried in secret without a jury and no press reporting
          • Allowed the Tsar to quickly deal with anyone who spoke out against the regime


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