Acids and Bases

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  • Acids and Bases
    • 'An acid is a compound that releases H+ ions in aqueous solution'
      • 'An acid is a proton donor'
      • Common Acids;
        • Hydrochloric Acid: HCl
        • Nitric Acid: HNO3
        • Sulphuric Acid: H2SO4
    • 'A base is a proton acceptor'
    • Reactions of aqueous acids
      • Neutralisation Reaction
        • The negative ions from the acid are left unchanged in the reaction, it is the H+ ions from the acid that react with the base
      • Acid + Metal Oxide -> Salt + Water
        • An oxide ion accepts protons from the acid to form a salt and water
      • Acid + Alkali -> Salt + Water
        • Alkalis release OH- ions in aqueous solution. The hydroxide ion accepts a proton from the acid to form water and the salt is formed from the remaining ions
      • Acid + Ammonia -> Ammonium Salt
        • Ammonia is a base, accepting H+ to form an ammonium ion
      • Acid + Carbonate -> Salt + Water + CO2
        • Any carbonate will react with any aqueous acid to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water
        • This type of reaction is accompanied by effervescence and the gas can be confirmed as CO2 by it's reaction with limewater
        • This reaction can be used to;
          • Test for the presence of a carbonate (by adding an acid)
          • Test for the presence of an acid (by adding a carbonate)
      • Acid + Metal -> Salt + Hydrogen(g)
        • The H+ gains an electron to form elemental hydrogen. This is called a redox reaction
    • 'A salt is a compound formed when the H+ ion from an acid is replaced by a metal ion or ammonium ion'
    • 'An alkali is a soluble base'


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