A2 Energy systems

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  • Created by: anyaw
  • Created on: 17-05-18 09:08
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  • A2 Energy systems
    • 1.Anaerobic system
      • 1. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
        • The energy from foods (glucose) is broken down to release energy that is used to form ATP.
        • The energy stored in an ATP molecule is released for the muscles to use when chemical bonds in ATP are broken through the enzyme ATPase.
        • This then changes to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) through an exothermic reaction. ATP can be resynthesised through the rest of the anaerobic system
      • 2. PC system
        • Muscles have a store of phosphocreatine (PC) which can be broken down by creatine kinase into creatine and phosphate and it’s this breakdown that releases energy to resynthesise one molecule of ATP. 
        • As a result, there are limited stores as one PC resynthesises only one ATP and it can only give energy to resynthesise ATP for 3 to 10 seconds.
      • 3. The anaerobic glycolytic system
    • 2. Aerobic system
      • 1. Glycolysis
      • 2. Krebs cycle
        • The Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid. This is further broken down through many reactions in the matrix of mitochondria, where CO2 is produced and removed through the lungs 
        • Hydrogen atoms are removed, energy is produced to resynthesise two molecules of ATP and oxaloacetic acid is restored.
      • 3. Electron transport chain
        • Hydrogen ions from the Krebs cycle are carried to the electron transport chain by carrier molecules. 
        • These hydrogen ions then go through further chemical reactions where they are combined with oxygen to create water and 34 molecules of ATP are generated.

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