3.1.6

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  • 3.1.6 ~  ATP
    • What is ATP?
      • Adenosine Triphosohate
      • A nucleotide derivative
      • It is formed from a molecule of ribose, a molecule of adenine and 3 phosphate groups.
    • Hydrolysis
      • Catalysed by the enzyme ATP hydrolase.
      • Can be coupled to energy- required reactions within cells
      • The inorganic phosphates released during this can phosphorylate other compounds, often making them more reactive.
    • What is energy?
      • Variety of different forms (e.g. heat, light, sound)
      • Can be changed from one form to another
      • Can not be created or destroyed
      • Measured in Joules (J)
    • Synthesis of ATP
      • This involves the addition of a phosphate molecule to ADP
      • This can happen in 3 ways:
        • Photophosphorylation
        • Oxidative Phosphorylation
        • Substrate level Phosphorylation
    • How ATP is stored
      • ATP + H2O   -> ADP + Pi
      • When the bonds break they release energy.
      • Energy is released though the hydrolysis of terminal phosphate groups.
    • Why do Organisms need energy?
      • Motabalism
      • Movement
      • Active Transport
      • Maintenance, repair and division.
      • Production of substances
      • Maintenance of body temperature.
    • Energy and Motabalism
      • Light energy in converted by plants in photosynthesis into chemical energy
      • Chemical energy is converted into ATP during respiration
      • ATP is used to perform the cell functions
    • Roles of ATP
      • We store energy in fats and carbohydrates
      • ATP to ADP is a quick reaction.
      • ATP is an immediate supply of energy, we needed by reforming ADP and Pi, we only store it for a matter of seconds.
      • Less energy produced than glucose molecules so its more manageable.

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