C1 Topic 2. Three Rock Types

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  • 3 Types of Rock
    • Sedimentary
      • Formed from layers of sediment laid down in lakes or seas
      • Layers get buried under more layers, squeezing out water
      • Fluids flowing through the pores deposit natural mineral cement
      • Limestone and chalk are sedimentary rocks
        • They contain fossils because sedimentary isn't formed at high temperatures so fossils aren't destroyed.
    • Metamorphic
      • Formed by the action and pressure on sedimentary or igneous rocks
      • The mineral structure changes but chemical composition is often the same as original rock
      • As long as they don't melt, they're metamorphic
      • Marble is formed from limestone or chalk
        • Very high temperatures break down the limestone and it reforms as small crystals
          • This makes marble harder with an even texture
    • Igenous
      • Forms when molten magma pushes up into the crust before cooling
      • Contain different minerals in randomly arranged interlocking crystals
      • EXTRUSIVE
        • Rocks cools quickly above ground forming small crystals
        • Basalt and Rhyolite
      • INTRUSIVE
        • Rock cools slowly underground forming large crystals
        • Granite and Gabbro

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