19th centuary public health

  • Created by: sofia84
  • Created on: 08-11-18 20:33
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  • 19th century medicine
    • Surgery
      • introduction of anesthetics
        • ether-difficult to inhale and was flammable
        • Chloroform- safe and effective
      • Opposition to anaesthetics
        • Some patients died as it was not understood that different patients sizes needed different amounts eg, Hannah Greener death
        • religious objections as pain was thought to be God's will
        • army surgeons during Crimean war (1853-56) thought it was a part of the soldiers duty to deal with pain
      • 1847-James Simpson discovered chloroform as an anaesthtic
        • at first people opposed this due to religion as they believed God wished them to be in pain
          • then queen Victoria made it popular when she used it to give birth
      • Surgeries now took place in private hospitals rather than public theatres or houses
    • Key individuals
      • Louis Pasteur
        • 1860-1964 Introduced germ theory and disproved spontaneous geneation
          • turning point in medicine
        • However many anti-contagionists still believed in miasma
      • Joseph Lister
        • revolutionised surgery
        • 1867 discovered antiseptics based on Pasteur's germ theory
        • used carbolic acid as an antiseptic
        • however his ideas were criticised as many people opposed the germ theory as influential doctors at the time supported spontaneous generation
          • Carbolic acid also was ineffective as it dried skin and irritated lungs
          • still operated in street clothes
        • SURGERY
        • number of operations increased by 10%
      • Robert Koch
        • 1876, he identified specific germs which caused diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
          • This disproved the idea that they were caused by miasma/dirt and supported Pasteur's Germ theory
        • meant many diseases could be cured
        • founder of bacteriology
    • Public Health
      • Industrialisation lead to poor conditions in the city
        • such as poor working conditions, overcrowding and poor living conditions
      • After cholera outbreaks in 1837-8 Chadwick was put in charge of an enquiry into living conditions & health of the poor
        • Chadwick's report said that disease was caused by miasma but also highlighted need for clean water and government involvement with public health
          • however gov didn't get involved as they believed in "laissez faire" ideas
            • and MP's didn't  want the expense of having to rebuild slum houses they rented out
      • during another cholera outbreak in 1854 20000 died and John snow realised that all victims lived near the Broad street water pump
        • removed the water pump and  outbreak stopped, Snow found that a street toilet had been leaking into the pump
          • John Snow made link between disease and sanitation
          • Despite this public health didn't improve so The Great Stnk
      • The Great Stink- 1854
        • heat wave caused foul smell from river Thames
          • alarmed parliament and so they paid engineer to build new sewage system
      • 1875- Public health act
        • 1867-working class men could finally vote so political parties had to improve conditions
          • local councils appointed medical officers, councils ordered to build sewers, supply fresh water and collect rubbish


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