1.2 Development of Cold War

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  • 1.2 Development of the Cold War
    • Truman Doctrine
      • European Countries were nearly bankrupt
        • 12 March 1947
          • Economic Aid Package to Greece and Turkey
      • Communism (evil) and Capitalism (good)
      • US Policy of Containment
      • Communism was attractive to many European countries in ruins
    • Marshall Plan
      • Provides economic aid to help war-torn countries and prevent communism
        • Money was shared according to population and industrialisation
        • UK - £3 billion
        • France - £2 billion
        • Other nations - £100 million
      • Dollar Imperialism
        • Soviets believed that USA was extending its influence in Europe and undermining the role of UN.
          • Using money to divide Europe and create an American economic Empire
          • Evidence to Stalin that USA was destroying USSR
      • Lured Western European countries to support USA
      • No remains of Grand Alliance
      • In response to Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan:
        • Cominform, 1947
          • Political Organisation with  8 Soviet Satellite States and USSR
            • Stalin able to direct and control governments of satellite states.
              • Follow Communism
              • Any orders from Moscow
        • Comecon, 1949
          • Satellite states didn't accept Marshall Aid
            • Keep their independence from Capitalist governments
          • Soviet alternative of Marshall Plan
            • Supported economic development in member states
              • Trade and Credit Agreements between member countries
              • Organise industrial planning across satellite states after 1953
                • 5 Year Plan
                • Nationalised Industry
                • Collectivised Agriculture
    • 1948 Berlin Crisis
      • Soviets wanted to exploit
        • West wanted to rebuild Germany
          • Trizonia
          • Deutschmark (economic unity)
            • Angered Stalin
              • Two Germanys
              • "Trying to force Soviet zone into poverty"
      • Test West determination
      • West Berlin was vulnerable
        • Soviet territory surrounds it
        • 2 air routes and two land routes across East Germany to West Berlin
          • Berlin Blockade of land routes
            • Stalin wanted to show that a divided Germany would not work
            • If successful, Stalin would win a huge propaganda campaign
              • Possible Soviet Capital
            • Western Allies launched the Berlin Airlift
              • flew food, coal and other resources
              • Berlin-Tempelhof
                • Berlin-Tegel (airports)
              • more than 170,000 tonnes of supplies sent into Berlin
              • 9 May 1947 - Blockade lifted and airlift worked
                • West Berlin survived
                • West responded peacefully to an aggressive attempt
    • Formation of East and West Germany
      • Federal Republic of Germany (West)
        • Bundestag (new government) in 1949
        • Founded 23 May 1949
      • German Democratic Republic (East)
        • Founded in October 1949 in response to west
        • Only recognised by Eastern Bloc
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
      • Causes
        • Stalin threat to Berlin
        • Communist takeover in Czechoslovak
        • Wanted to show determination to stand against comunism
      • April 1949 - NATO founded
        • if one was attacked, rest would help
      • in response to NATO, Warsaw Pact was formed when West Germany joined NATO
        • Threat to Soviet Union
        • Leadership entirely Soviet

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