How bonding and structure are related to the properties of substances

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  • Created on: 06-01-18 19:02
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  •  How bonding and structure are related to the properties of substances
    • The amount of energy needed to change state depends on the strength of the forces between the particles of the substance.
    • Limitations of the simple states of matter model : - There are no         forces       - All particles are spheres     - The spheres are solid.
    • Ionic compounds have high melting points annd boiling points because of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds in the giant lattice structure.
      • When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and so charge can flow
    • Substances that consist of small molecules are usually gases or liquids that have low melting points and boiling points. 
      • These substances have only weak forces between the molecules (intermolecular forces).
        • It is these intermolecular forces that are overcome, not the covalent bonds, when the substance melts or boils.
        • These substances do not conduct electricity because the molecules do not have an overall electric charge.
    • Polymers have very large molecules.
      • The atoms in the polymer molecules are linked to other atoms by strong covalent bonds.
        • The intermolecular forces between polymer molecules are relatively strong and so these substances are solids at room temperature
    • Substances that consist of giant covalent structures are solids with very high melting points. 
      • All of the atoms in these structures are linked to other atoms by strong covalent bonds. These bonds must be overcome to melt or boil these substances. .
    • Metals have giant structures of atoms with strong metallic bonding.
      • In pure metals, atoms are arranged in layers, which allows metals to be bent and shaped.
        • Pure metals are too soft for many uses and so are mixed with other metals to make alloys which are harder.
    • The stronger the forces between the particles the higher the melting point and boiling point of the substance

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