year one sociology - education key terms

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a* - c economy
system in which schools concentrate their efforts on those pupils they see as most likely to gain five a* - c gcse grades and so boost the school's league table position
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where an individual or group feels socially isolated and estranged because they lack the power to control their lives and realise their true potential
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a form of streaming
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a marxist term for the capitalist class
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compensatory education
government education policies such as operation headstart in the usa that seek to tackle the problem of under-achievement by providing extra support and funding to schools and families in deprived areas
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comprehensive system
non-selective education system where all children attend the same type of secondary school - introduced in england and wales from 1965
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correspondence principle
bowles and gintis' concept describing the way that the organisation and control of schools mirrors or 'corresponds to' the workplace in capitalist society e.g. the control teachers exert over pupils mirrors the control managers exert over workers
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critical race theory
identifies several ways in which the education system is institutionally racist, including selection, ethnocentric curriculum and assessment. argues racism cannot be removed merely by passing laws but requires direct action
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cultural capital
knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities that middle class transmit to their children. bourdieu argues educational success is largely based on cultural capital thus giving m/c children an advantage
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cultural deprivation
theory that many working class and black children are inadequately socialised therefore lack the 'right' culture needed for educational success e.g. their families do not instil the value of deferred gratification
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shared norms, values, knowledge, beliefs and skills by a society or group of people transmitted from generation to generation through socialisation
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things taught or learnt in educational institutions. national curriculum includes subjects, courses etc while hidden curriculum includes things learnt without being formally taught
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deferred gratification
postponing immediate rewards or pleasures generally with aim of producing greater reward at a later date e.g. staying in to revise rather than going out with friends which will bring greater exam results - seen as middle class culture
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distinguishing or creating differences between individuals or groups e.g. streaming
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treating people differently (negatively or positively) because they're members of a particular social group. can occur on grounds of : gender, ethnicity, age, disability, sexuality, religion etc
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educational triage
process whereby schools sort pupils into 'hopeless cases', 'those who will pass anyway', and 'those with potential to pass' - then concentrate their efforts on the last of these groups as way to boost the school's exam league table position
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ethnic group
people who share same heritage, culture, identity, often including same language and religion e.g. bangladeshi community in britain
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seeing or judging things in a biased way from the viewpoint of one particular culture e.g. national curriculum described as ethnocentric since it tends to value white culture and disregards asian or black culture
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bourdieu's concept - refers to the learned, taken-for-granted ways of thinking, acting and being shared by a particular social class or group. includes preferences for particular lifestyles and consumption patterns
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hidden curriculum
things learnt by pupils without them being taught as the official curriculum e.g. respect and punctuality
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organisation or social structure based on 'pyramid' of senior and junior positions
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institutional racism
discrimination built into everyday workings of institutions such as schools and colleges. may be unconscious rather than deliberate but is deeply ingrained e.g. teaching only negative black history such as slavery
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process of attaching a definition or meaning to an individual or group e.g. teachers may label a pupil as 'trouble maker' - not always negative
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policy of introducing market forces into areas run by the state. 1988 education reform act began marketisation of education by encouraging competition between schools and choice for parents
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material deprivation
poverty; a lack of basic necessities such as adequate diet, housing, clothing or money. explains working class under-achievement as result of lacking resources e.g. parents unable to afford educational aids
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educational or social system where everyone has an equal opportunity to succeed and where individuals' rewards and status are achieved by own efforts rather than ascribed. "effort achieves"
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model minorities
term used to describe minority ethnic groups such as chinese and indian pupils who achieve above average results
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society or institution that recognises and gives value to different cultures and/or ethnic groups
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myth of meritocracy
functionalists argue that the education system is meritocratic but bowles and gintis claim that meritocracy is an ideology legitimating inequality by falsely claiming that everyone has equal opportunity
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new vocationalism
idea that education should be primarily about meeting needs of economy by equipping young people with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to prepare them for work. since 1970s, it's given rise to educational initiatives such as BTEC
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social rules, expectations or standards that govern the behaviour expected in particular situations
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'rule by parents' - ideology of parental choice of school. middle class parents may benefit from parentocracy because they have more economic and cultural capital placed to excercise choice
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creating two opposite extremes e.g. pro-school and anti-school subcultures
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process of choosing and allocating pupils to a particular school, class, stream etc. e.g. tripartite system after 1944, 11+ exam selected pupils based on ability for grammar or secondary modern school
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self-fulfilling prophecy
prediction made about a person or group comes true simply because it has been made
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social policy
actions, plans and programmes of government bodies and agencies aim to deal with a problem. e.g. raising levels of educational attainment
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process by which individual learns / internalises culture of a society
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speech codes
patterns or ways of using language. bernstein argues working class uses restricted code and middle class uses elaborate code - also used within schools giving m/c children an advantage
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children are separated into different ability groups or classes ('streams'), then each ability group is taught separately from other for all subjects
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symbolic capital
status, recognition and sense of worth we're able to obtain from others. archer et al found w/c girls found symbolic capital from peers by performing a hyper-heterosexual feminine 'nike' identity but this brought conflict within school's m/c ethos
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symbolic violence
harm done by denying someone symbolic capital e.g. by defining their culture as worthless. archer et al found that schools devalue w/c pupils' style preferences as tasteless
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tripartite system
system of secondary education created by 1944 education act based on three types of school : grammar, secondary modern + technical. 11+ exam used to identify pupil's aptitudes and abilities
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ideas or beliefs about general principles or goals. tells society's members about what is good and important in life and what to aim for
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connected to a career. vocational education and training transmits knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to pursue particular careers e.g. IT or hairdressing
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where an individual or group feels socially isolated and estranged because they lack the power to control their lives and realise their true potential



Card 3


a form of streaming


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Card 4


a marxist term for the capitalist class


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Card 5


government education policies such as operation headstart in the usa that seek to tackle the problem of under-achievement by providing extra support and funding to schools and families in deprived areas


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