WW2

How was Stalin's reputation effected during WW2?
It soared - he turned into a national superhero and was held in greater awe than ever before. While doubts had been whispered about his authority before the war, it was nearly impossible to consider such betrayal in 1945.
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What was seen on all public buildings during WW2?
Paintings portraying Stalin as a great wartime leader.
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Despite his personal triumph, how did Stalin behave immediately after WW2?
He became more paranoid - suspicions of real and imaginary enemies had grown.
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Where was Stalin's paranoia most apparent?
In his attitude to returning prisoners-of-war, who Stalin belived was tainted with Western values, purely becasue of their survival in Western camps during the war. Many went direct from German to Soviet camps.
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Who were immediately executed under the orders of Stalin after WW2?
Those who had fought for Germany. The Cossacks were virtually wiped out. Whole communities were destroyed.
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Who did the NKVD interrogate in 'infiltration camps'?
Servicemen returning from fighting abroad. Those believed to have potential subversive views were sent to the gulags. Those with a good war record were given promotion and higher education.
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How was the war seen as a triumph for Stalin?
Politically. It helped to make the government a popular 'nationalist' government, and in international terms, it emerged as a great miliatry power.
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How did the regions of the USSR change during WW2?
The SU retained all the regions it had occupied under the Nazi-Soviet Pact and took more, creating a band of satellite states in Eastern Europe.
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How old was Stalin in 1945?
66
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What was victory portrayed as?
Victory of the system, not the people - still no need for relaxing of internal discipline and authoritarian government. Stalin believed it justified his position as the SU showed it could solve own problems - no desire to chnage government structure.
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Which posts did Stalin retain?
The 2 key posts - Head of Government and Party Secretary. He also chose the same men for the Politburo as in 1939 - saw a return of methods of the 1930s.
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Give 3 members of the Politburo.
Molotov, Kaganovich and Voroshilov.
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How many civilians died?
19 million
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How many soldiers died?
9 million
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How many hospitals were destroyed?
40,000
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How many railways were destroyed?
65,000 km
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In the western provinces, how many had nothing but wooden huts to live in?
25 million and many of the achievements of the 1930s had been destroyed.
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How did the war years make life easier for the Soviet people?
It offered ordinary people more opportunity for individual initiavte and helped to bring the State and people closer - the sense of collective endeavour for the SU, Stalin and government gave new hope for when war was over.
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What was the impact of comradeship among soldiers?
It helped to spread new liberal thinking, especially as they saw more of the West, and army offciers emerged from the war at forefront of the movement for greater liberalisation.
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How did Western influence in wartime change?
It increased in comparison to the isolationist 1920s and 1930s.
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Give examples of Western influence in wartime.
The Lend-Lease Scheme, movement of soldiers to the West and the propaganda image of dismay of West was disproven. Hollywood films, jazz and Western books found their way along with pubs opening - gave hope of a new society emerging.
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What was the reality of Soviet society after the war?
The years between 1945 and 1953 were among the most bleak of the entire Stalinist period.
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What was the German 'blitzkrieg'?
This began on the 22nd June 1941, when 3 million soldiers with 3,580 tanks poured into the USSR, supported by the Luftwaffe. Largest invasion in history and left Soviet force in choas.
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By the 28th June 1941, where had the Germans captured?
Minsk - forces were now heading to Moscow and Leningrad.
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When did Stalin meet his Politburo? What was his first wartime order?
Immediately - that the German air force (Luftwaffe) be destroyed and the invading forces annihilated.
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Why did Stalin leave public announcements to Molotov?
Because he could not bring himself to do it. Molotov was thus left (through loudspeakers on streets in cities) to declare that a German invasion was underway.
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What did the onset of war bring?
The need for a clearly defined structure of governmental and military authority. Whether Stalin was affected by depression or he deliberately took time to plan strategies, this took a week to establish.
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When was the GKO set up?
30th June 1941 by the Politburo. It was a civilian body responsibel for organisation and coordination - exercises absolute control over all organisations and directs wartime economy.
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When was the GKO increased from 5 to 8 members?
February 1942.
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From July 1941, who did all political and military authority lie with?
Stalin
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How did Stalin rekindle patriotism and reduce the oppsotion of the 1930s?
Through speeches, such as on the 3rd July 1941. Stalin appealed to his people's love of their country in these speeches, and rallied on the threat of culture, not socialism - people were fighting for Russia, not communsim.
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When did the Germans come dangerously close to Moscow?
October 1941
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What did Stalin do in October 1941?
Ordered the evacuation of government to the Volga region. However, in a display of resistance, he demanded that the Red Sqaure parad, held annually on revolution anniversary, should take place as normal.
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Who was the running of war increasingly left to?
The General Staff, though if miliatry leaders displayed incompetence they were removed, not matter how close they once had been to Stalin. Marshal Voroshilov (former civil war commander) was replaced by men of talent brought back from the gulags.
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Why did Stalin leave the running of war to the General Staff?
Due to the disastrous start of war as he understood the need for expertise to plan campaigns.
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Who did Stalin come to rely heavily on?
Zhukov, who sucessfully defended defended Moscow in November 1941 and ulitmately led the Soviet troops to Berlin in April 1945.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was seen on all public buildings during WW2?

Back

Paintings portraying Stalin as a great wartime leader.

Card 3

Front

Despite his personal triumph, how did Stalin behave immediately after WW2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where was Stalin's paranoia most apparent?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who were immediately executed under the orders of Stalin after WW2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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