What is a millionaire city and how many are there worldwide?
Cities with populations exceeding 1 million. Over 400 worldwide.
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Give an example of a millionaire city.
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What is a megacity and how many are there worldwide?
Cities with populations exceeding 10 million. Over 20 worldwide.
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Give an example of a megacity.
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What is a world city?
A city with global influence. Usually a centre of trade, culture, finance and science.
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Which cities are currently recognised as world cities?
London, New York and Tokyo
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Where are emerging world cities likely to be situated?
NICs such as China and India.
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What are the four processes that make up the cycle of urbanisation? (In order)
Urbanisation, suburbanisation, counter-urbanisation, reurbanisation.
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What is urbanisation?
The increase in the proportion of the population living in urban areas as opposed to rural areas.
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What is suburbanisation?
The movement of people away from the city centre to the outskirts of urban areas.
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What is counter-urbanisation?
The movement of people away from urban areas to the rural-urban fringe or rural areas.
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What is reurbanisation?
The repopulation of urban areas as people move back into cities.
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What is the primary process causing urbanisation?
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Where is rural-urban migration currently most prominent?
In developing countries.
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Give 4 push factors associated with rural-urban migration.
Desertification due to human activity and climate change-land unsuitable for farming. Farmers unable to pay back loans taken out to mechanise agriculture. Mechanisation of agriculture- fewer jobs. Civil war/conflict- high mortality, food shortages.
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Give 4 pull factors associated with rural-urban migration.
More jobs available in urban areas. Higher wages. Better access to facilities such as health, education and entertainment. Perceived better quality of life.
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When did rapid urbanisation occur in developed countries?
The 18th and 19th centuries.
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What are the negative impacts of urbanisation in areas where demand for space, resources and services cannot be met? Give 4.
Insufficient affordable housing for migrants- slum development. High competition for formal jobs-low wages, poor conditions, little job security. Many employed in informal sector-unpredicable, insecure, dangerous. Pressure on roads and railways.
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Give 5 features of slums/shanty towns/squatter settlements.
Often built on unsafe land (prone to flooding, landslides). Lack of basic services. Overcrowded-disease risk. Limited access to education-children work, reducing chances of progressing beyond slum. Social tension between slum dwellers and city rsdnts
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What are the four ways in which the impacts of urbanisation can be managed in LEDCs?
Building new housing to replace slums. Improving services available in slums. Getting local residents involved in improving local area. Redeveloping slums into new independent townships.
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Give an example of building new housing to replace slums; how many were planned and how many were built?
Sao Paulo, Brazil. In 1995, local authority planned 100,000 new houses to replace slums. However, slum dwellers could not afford to pay rent so only 14,000 were built.
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Give an example of improving the services available in slums.
The Monte Azul Community Association in Sao Paulo provides education and free healthcare for the Monte Azul favela.
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Give an example of getting residents involved in improving the local area.
The $300 million Favela-Bairro project in Rio de Janeiro made improvements in 73 favelas. Gas, electricity and water were supplied, as well as adult education classes. Residents chose improvements. New services employed residents to provide jobs.
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Give an example of redeveloping slums into new independent townships.
Dharavi, Mumbai case study.
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Give four push factors associated with suburbanisation.
Poor quality housing in cities (e.g. old terraced housing from Industrial Rev.). Authorities may clear slums and move residents to council estates on outskirts. Deindustrialisation in cities means fewer jobs. Higher unemployment- demultiplier effect.
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When did UK local authorities move residents from inadequate inner city housing to council estates on the outskirts of urban areas? Give an example of such an estate.
The 1940s and 1950s. Leigh Park, Havant.
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Give three pull factors associated with suburbanisation.
Planning laws more relaxed outside city centre, allowing council estates to be built. Transport improvements and increasing car ownership allow commuting. Businesses/shops also take advantage of cheaper rents on outskirts, providing services.
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Give four impacts of suburbanisation on the city centre.
As people move out, buildings are abandoned. Businesses leave, increasing unemployment and poverty. Wealthier people leave, and poor residents/foreign immigrants remain - segregation. Increase in commuters - congestion and pollution.
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Give three impacts of suburbanisation on the suburbs.
New housing estates built on greenfield sites, disturbing wildlife. As urban areas spread, more land concreted over - surface runoff, flood risk. Increased car ownership - congestion and pollution.
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Give four ways in which the impacts of suburbanisation can be managed.
Redevelopment of inner city brownfield sites, as took place in the Birmingham Big City Challenge. Surrounding urban areas with a greenbelt to prevent sprawl. Traffic reduction schemes such as the Congestion Charge in London. Flood defence systems.
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Give details of the Birmingham Big City Plan.
2011. Aimed to redevelop 5 inner city areas, build 5,000 new homes and create 50,000 new jobs.
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Give three push factors associated with counter-urbanisation.
Noise and air pollution in cities and towns. Congestion and parking difficulties. Rising house prices in suburban areas - better value for money in rural areas.
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Give four pull factors associated with counter-urbanisation.
Houses in rural areas less densely packed; more detached properties. Quiet, lots of open scape - good for families, retirees. Improved technology means people can work from home and trade online. Commuting an option.
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Give three positive impacts of counter-urbanisation (on rural areas).
Services see an increase in businesses due to newcomers with high disposable incomes. Existing housing improved through renovations -e.g. farmers sell barns for conversion. Some rural schools previously closed due to low numbers - can open again.
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Give three negative impacts of counter-urbanisation (on rural areas).
New housing developments may harm the traditional character of rural settlements. Wealth of new residents high - can travel to urban areas to shop, so local services suffer. Narrow rural roads struggle with increase in traffic.
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Give three ways in which the impacts of counter-urbanisation can be managed.
Restrictions on new housing developments (appearance, materials etc). Companies such as NatWest have mobile companies that visit rural areas weekly. Local occupancy clauses allow local people to remain in area when they move.
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Give three push factors associated with re-urbanisation (more developed stage than urbanisation).
Lack of skilled jobs in rural areas. Lack of access to leisure/entertainment/cultural facilities. Counter-urbanisation may cause increased house prices in rural areas.
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Give three pull factors associated with re-urbanisation.
Redevelopment of brownfield sites preferable, so governments more likely to invest in run-down urban areas to redevelop them. Young, single professionals like to live close to workplace and ent/leisure facilities. Universities attract students.
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Give three positive impacts of re-urbanisation.
New shops and businesses set up as city repopulated - employment opps. etc. Tourism may increase, bringing more money in to area. Increased enrolment will benefit local state schools (although wealthier residents may send away to private schools).
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Give three negative impacts of re-urbanisation.
Original residents/their children can no longer afford to live in area as property prices rise. Jobs created may not suit the unskilled original residents. Social tension between new and original residents - decline in community cohesion - crime?
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Give two ways in which the impacts of re-urbanisation can be managed.
Guarantees to build affordable housing - development of Camden promised 25% of housing would be affordable for locals. Some charitable projects help locals to build skills - e.g. London Docklands 'City Gateway'
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What are the stages of urban decline (in order)?
Decline in industry. Increase in unemployment. Shops and services decline. Physical environment declines.
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What is gentrification?
The process of regenerating a run down area by individually improving housing, increasing its value and attracting wealthier residents.
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Give four positive impacts of gentrification.
Housing improved. Value of housing increases (so residents can sell for more). New businesses move in to cater for wealthy newcomers. Crime rates fall, fewer derelict buildings.
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Give four negative impacts of gentrification.
Tenants forced out of homes as landlords want to sell while value is high. Children of original residents cannot afford to live nearby. Original residents lose shops they need - replaced by high order. Social tension.
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Give three other methods of urban regeneration.
Property-led regeneration, partnership schemes and Urban Development Corporations.
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What was the usual distribution of retailing in the 1950s and 1960s?
Shops selling high-order goods were located in urban centres, whilst small shops selling low-order goods were found locally in small neighbourhoods.
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What happened to retailing from the 1970s onwards?
Large shops began to move to the outskirts of urban areas, creating large out-of-town retailing complexes. Most cities now have them.
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Give four key reasons for the growth of out-of-town retailing.
Increased car ownership - easy access. Parking prices high in centre, but free out-of-town. Cars and home freezers allow people to do one weekly food shop. Cheaper to build out of town (often on brownfield land).
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What do out-of-town retail parks also tend to feature aside from shops? Why?
Bowling alleys, restaurants, cinemas etc. Encourages customers to spend more time and money at the complex, even making it a social event/family day out.
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Give two positive impacts of out-of-town retailing on the city centre.
Reduced congestion and pollution. Competition encourages local authority to invest in CBD regeneration.
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Give three negative impacts of out-of-town retailing on the city centre.
Competition may cause some city centre shops to close - jobs lost. Decline in city centre footfall also causes close of services such as restaurants. Decline in business leads to general urban decline.
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Give three positive impacts of out-of-town retailing on the rural-urban fringe.
Jobs created for suburban residents. Often built on brownfield sites (e.g. Bluewater in Kent is built on a former quarry). Houses within easy access may increase in value.
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Give two negative impacts of out-of-town retailing on the rural-urban fringe.
Complexes require a lot of construction which can create noise pollution and congestion. Increase in people driving to the area will result in congestion and air pollution.
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Give five general strategies of CBD development.
Pedestrianisation to reduce noise and air pollution. Street markets created - improved atmosphere and more goods available. Public transport improved, e.g. park and ride. CCTV, street lighting - safer. More green areas to increase appearance.
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Give four examples of new functions developed to revive CBDs.
Cafes/bars/ent. venues increased to populate area day and night, reducing crime (but drunkenness an issue). Free cultural/ent. events -Liverpool Light Night. Flagship attractions-Lightbox museum in Woking attract tourists. Gay village - Manc.
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What is sustainability?
Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
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How much waste on average did each person in the UK produce during 2010?
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What is the EU target on waste management?
50% of all household waste to be recycled by 2020.
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What gases does burning waste in landfill produce?
Carbon dioxide and methane.
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What new technologies are in use at some landfill sites, and where are they being used?
Gases emitted can be captured and used to manufacture biofuel or generate electricity. Used in Mumbai, India.
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How many families scavenged on the Smokey Mountain dump in Manila until its closure in 1996?
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How much of UK waste could be composted?
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What is the economic benefit of household composting?
Reduces local authority costs for waste disposal.
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What does large-scale composting involve?
Waste is collected and transported to a reactor where it is broken down anaerobically.
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What is the main risk of composting?
If not managed properly, contaminants in the compost (such as metals and chemicals) may make crops grown in it harmful to eat.
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Give an example of how one product can be recycled into another.
Plastic bottled can be recycled into fleece jumpers.
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Give three advantages of recycling.
Producing goods from recycled materials is cheaper and quicker than from scratch. Recycling uses less energy than making new things. Reduces demand for extraction of natural resources.
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How much more energy does it take to manufacture an aluminium can from scratch in comparison to from recycled materials.
20 times as much energy
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Give three disadvantages of recycling.
Relies on individuals - many don't bother. Recycling plans construction is expensive and emits greenhouse gases. Lots of recyclable material in UK is sent abroad for processing, which causes emissions.
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How much of the UK's recyclable paper was sent to China for processing in 2007?
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What is energy recovery?
Waste that cannot be recycled or composted is burned to generate heat and electricity.
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What greenhouse gas does energy recovery emit?
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How many houses in Sheffield city centre are powered by energy recovery, and how much carbon dioxide is saved annually?
140 houses powered. 21,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide saved annually.
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How can households reuse items and reduce waste?
Refilling plastic bottles.
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How can businesses reduce waste?
Signing up to low-packaging mailing companies or reducing packaging on products.
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What reusal and reduction scheme is used in Germany?
Drinks companies charge a deposit for drinks in refillable bottles, which is returned when bottled are dropped off at a collection point.
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Why does traffic increase in urban areas as countries develop?
Car ownership increases. More delivery vehicles as shops and services grow.
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Give three examples of city road schemes.
Bus lanes (e.g. Curitiba and Cambridgeshire). Cycle lanes (e.g. Surbiton). High Occupancy Vehicles (e.g. Toronto, Canada).
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Give details of Curitiba's integrated transport system.
1600 buses in operation and passengers only need 1 ticket for any journey around the city. 70% of commuters use bus facilities.
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Give three methods of traffic management.
Bypasses built. Park and ride schemes. Congestion charges.
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What low-carbon vehicles are in operation globally?
Biofuel, hybrid, hydrogen and electric vehicles.
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What public transport measure did Singapore introduce in 2010?
Hydrogen-electric buses, which only emit water.
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What are the two disadvantages of low-carbon vehicles?
Vehicles expensive to buy. Refuelling facilities are limited.
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Other cards in this set
Give an example of a millionaire city.
What is a megacity and how many are there worldwide?
Give an example of a megacity.
What is a world city?