World Cities

  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 05-06-13 16:10
What is a megacity?
Metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people
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What is a world city?
A city that acts as a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics, culture, science, information gathering and diffusing etc.
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What is a milionaire city?
A city with over a million inhabitants
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Define urbanisation
An increase in the proportion of a country's population that live in towns and cities
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Define suburbanisation
The outward growth of urban development that has engulfed surrounding villages and rural areas is a result of suburbanisation
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What are the push factors encouraging suburbanisation?
Congestion, high population density in city, high levels of traffic, perception of lower quality of life and pollution
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What are the pull factors encouraging suburbanisation?
More open spaces, perception of better education, increasing number of job oppurtunities in suburbs and lower price of land and housing
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Define counter-urbanisation
The migration of people from major urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas
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Name 5 reasons for counter-urbanisation
Technological change, transport improvements, urban renewal processes, negative reaction to city life, rising deamdn for second homes and need for rural areas to attract income
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What are the negative effects of counter-urbanisation?
Houses prices increase, lack of appreciation of village traditions, villages being 'ghost like' during day, increase in population, increased car pollution and more traffic accidents
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What are the postive effects of counter-urbanisation?
Improvement of services, supports local facilities, new and improved transport links, increased cultural standing and increased value of land
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Define re-urbanisation
Movement of people into the city centre or inner city as part of urban regeneration
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What 3 processes are there of re-generation?
Gentrification, property-led regentrification schemes, sustainable communities
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Define gentrification
Changes in neighbourhood composition where low-income groups are replaced by more affluent
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What are the positives of gentrification?
Allows for a more positive social mix, increases no of bars and restaurants (more jobs) and building work carried out creates jobs
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What are the negatives of gentrification?
Locals cannot purchase property property in area
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What are Urban Development Cooperations?
Set up in 1980/90s to take responsibility for physical, social and economic regeneration of selected inner-city areas where there was large amounts of derelict and urban land
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Why has retail changed?
E-commerce, car ownership, disposable income, change in how we shop, expectation of how we shop and international influence
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What are the advantages of out-of-town retailing?
New jobs and oppurtunities, profit for local businesses, larger variety, longer hours, one visit for all goods, offers other services and before it was a brownfield site
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What are the disadvantages of out-of-town retailing?
Part-time jobs, surrounding area rises, high streets suffer, new roads, pollution, urban sprawl and greenfield sites
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What is urban sprawl?
The continual expansion of a settlement through and beyond its given boundaries
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Define urban decline
Inner city areas are typified by economic, social and population decline, political problems and poor physical environment
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What are the main characteristics of urban decline?
High out-migration figures, boarded up shops, empty and derelict houses, closure of schools, unemployment, high crime incidence and low levels of democracy
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Why were inner-city high-rises unpoplar?
Lacked a community feel, poorly ventilated, expensive to heat, open spaces = uncared for, poor design = hidden places - crime
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What factors are influencing CBD decline?
Increased mobility, planning policies, city councils try to attract investment to greenfield sites, peripheral locations cheaper, CBD's are expensive, congestion, urban sprawl, perceived nature of CBDs
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What strategies are there for reversing decline in CBDs?
Establishment of business teams, more attractive shopping centres, all-weather malls, encouragement of special areas, transport, CCTV, shopping events and conservation schemes
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Name the waste management heirachy
Reduce, reuse, recycle, energy recovery and dispose
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Name the 5 waste management methods
Landfill, incineration, physical reprocessing, biological reprocessing and energy recovery
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a world city?


A city that acts as a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics, culture, science, information gathering and diffusing etc.

Card 3


What is a milionaire city?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define urbanisation


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define suburbanisation


Preview of the front of card 5
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