World Cities

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What is Birth Rate?
number of live births per 1000 per year
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what is Death rate?
Number of deaths per 1000 per year
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What is natural change?
(Birth rate- Death rate)/10 = %
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Why has rapid urbanisation taken place on a global scale?
During the last 50 years, this is becasue of population increase, rural-urban migration as more countries develop through the DTM, and increased economic development.
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What percentage of the global population live in urban areas?
54%. This figure is expected to rise exponentially.
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What is a Millionaire city & give an example?
A city with inhabitants of more than 1 million people eg London with 8 million.
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What is a Mega city and give an example?
Cities with more than 10 million people eg Shanghai with 25 million
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What is a World city and give an example?
Cities whihc have great influence on a global scale because of their financial status and worldwide power. They sit at the top of the global hierarchy and are the location of TNC headquarters eg New York City
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Examples of Primary jobs
Minin, farming, fishing
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Examples of Secondary jobs
Manufacturing
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Examples of Tertiary jobs
Service eg Teaching, doctor, accountant
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Examples of Quaternary jobs
Those involving computing such as coding
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Define urbanisation
An increase in the proportion of a country's population living in towns and cities
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What are the main causes of urbanisation
Natural increase and rural-urban migration
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Why are LEDC cities growing so fast?
Young population structure due to high fertility/birth rates, coupled with falling death rates. Increased rural-urban migration as job opportunities move from primary to secondary. Natural increase is intensified by migrants of childbearing age
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Name 6 effects of urbanisation
Pollution/litter, crime, congestion, services strain, slums/lack of housing, greater social inequality.
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Case study for urbanisation
Lagos, Nigeria
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6 push factors for urbanisation
famine, flooding, poor economic return from farming, drought, conflict, lack of employment
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4 pull factors for urbanisation
better employment opportunities, more employment opportunities, better access to services, higher standard of living
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3 positives of urbanisation
Infant mortality lowers, life expectancy rises, informal sector provides jobs and can formalise over time
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5 negatives of urbanisation
Unplanned and illegal shanty towns, informal sector does not pay taxes, concentration of services in cities=inaccessible to rural population, environmental problems, growing disparities in wealth and education
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Define suburbanisation
The movement of people from inner city areas to living on the outer edge of a city, facilitated by transport networks and private car ownership. Suburbs can also attract people from rural areas
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Suburbanisation UK timeline: 1930's
Post WWI=better railways and more private car ownership. people move outward from cities, ribbon development occurs along major roads and railways.
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Suburbanisation UK timeline: 1940's
Introduction of the greenbelt prevents urban sprawl
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Suburbanisation UK timeline: 1950's-60's
Construction of council housing blocks in suburbs as it was the only available land
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Suburbanisation UK timeline: 1970's
More home ownership as opposed to renting. suburbs offer bigger, newer housing.
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Suburbanisation UK timeline: 1980's-90's
Out of town shopping centres/offices built in the suburbs. Even greater car ownership.
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Suburbanisation UK timeline: 2000's
More semi-detached housing built in suburbs, along with more services eg schools
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Suburbanisation UK timeline: 2010's
Quaternary jobs allow people to work from home
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Causes of Suburbanisation
As more offices/industry move to suburbs, people will have to follow them to find work. As more people move to suburbs, more services/industry will be developed. cyclical causes working in tandem.
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Suburbanisation, 5 push factors
limited space, high living cost, high density housing, noise/pollution/congestion, high land value=less value for money.
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Suburbanisation, 5 pull factors
safer/quieter, financial incentives for business (in UK no VAT for new developments), less pressure on services, less business competition, cheaper land/rent
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3 positive effects of suburbanisation
Less need for high rise/high density housing in cities, local tax base increase=council can develop new facilities, increasing employment opportunities
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5 negative effects of suburbanisation
loss of tax base=decline of inner city, buildings left vacant/derelict, decay of local village community, land value increase, pressure on greenbelt.
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How can suburbanisation be countered?
By offering more affordable inner city housing
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Two suburbanisation case studies
Birmingham and Silicon Fen
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Define counter-urbanisation
The movement of people from large urban areas to rural areas. People commute back into the city or work from home on computers.
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What are two other terms for counter-urbanisation?
Village gentrification and rural turnaround
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Who are the people most likely to counter-urbanise
Middle classes, young families, affluent people
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6 push factors for counter-urbanisation
increasing house prices, pollution, noise, high crime rates, traffic/congestion, strained services
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6 pull factors for counter-urbanisation
pleasant environment, rural idyll, quaternary jobs, second home ownership, cheaper land/property, easier commutes
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Why can those who counter-urbanise become disillusioned
Long commute times and the realisation that they prefer busier city life
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6 impacts of counter-urbanisation on a rural area
rising house prices, 'dormitory villages', increased congestion, gentrification, culture clash/loss, second homes make village empty for most of the year.
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4 impacts of counter-urbanisation on a city area
brain drain, urban decline, loss of tax base, loss of work force
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case study for counterurbanisation
st ives, cambridgeshire
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Define re-urbanisation
The movement of people and economic activity back into city areas. The population of a city, particularly the inner area, begins to increase again as a result of regeneration.
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what happened in the 1980's, pre-reurbanisation?
Middle classes were drawn to the lure of the countryside, technology such as fax allowed work from home, retailers followed with out of town shopping centres, rich and poor left behind=polarisation
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Who moves back to cities in re-urbanisation?
People who prefer city life, young couples with no children, older people(widowed/divorced/better quality of services), people who want a shorter commute/better social life/closer services
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Define gentrification
The in-movement of individuals into older housing that was in a state of disrepair and improving that housing
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Case study for gentrification
Notting Hill
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Define property-led regeneration scheme
The in-movement of people a part of a large scale invenstement programme aimed at urban redevelopment and regeneration in a wider social, economic, and physical sense.
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Case study for property-led regeneration scheme
Kings Cross
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Define partnership regeneration
A development between local and national governments and the private sector.
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Case study for partnership regeneration
Elephant and Castle
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Why do wealth and poverty concentrate spatially?
This form of social segregation is due to housing (wealthier groups have the luxury of choosing where to live), Changing environments (Gentrification/conversion of houses to flats), and Ethnic Dimension (comfort/safety/conservation of home culture)
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Define multiple deprivation
A combination of social, environmental, and economic depriavtion
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Define urban social exclusion
The problems faced by residents of areas of multiple deprivation. these people are excluded from full participation in society by their social and physical circumstances, leading to a lack of social cohesion.
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How many manufacturing jobs in major uk urban areas were lost between 1960 and 1981?
1.6 million, accounting for 75% of national job losses. It was due to deindustrialisation
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What happened in 1994 in inner cities unemployment-wise?
The inner cities of the UK had an unemployment rate 50% higher than the rest of the country
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What did suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation mean for the uk's largest cities?
That between 1951 and 1981 the uk's largest cities lost 35% of their population. Those who moved tended to be younger, more affluent,and more skilled.
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Why have election turnouts affected urban decline?
Inner city residents have the lowest election turnout rates in the country, so their issues have arguably been marginalised.
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Why have urban regeneration policies done little to relieve poverty?
Clear financial incentives are given to facilitate clearance of old property rather than repair.
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Name 4 reasons for urban decline
high land value/living cost, out of town shopping centres=loss of retail function, loss of offices to peripheral locations eg prestige science parks like silicon fen, increased car ownership leads to increased personal mobility
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what are the 5 ways to manage waste?
reduction, re-use, recycling, recover, composting
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Define reduction and give an example
preventing the production of waste in the first place, for example by companies minimising packaging. There is now a 5p charge for plastic bags in the UK. Kenco coffee adopted a 90% less packaging scheme
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Define reuse and give an example
By not immediately throwing away plastic bottles or bags. The bag for life scheme at supermarkets such as waitrose and sainsburys supports this.
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Define recycling and give an example
Waste products such as paper, glass, metal, plastics, and clothes can all be recycled and turned into other items. Local councils provide homes with separate containers for different materials and collect them on a weekly or bi-weekly basis.
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Where do most people recycle in the UK
The SW. the NE recycles the least. this is thought to be connected to education disparities
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Define recovery and give an example
burning waste in order to gain energy from it. This can add CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and harmful substances. The UK has 17 incinerators for energy recovery. Prevents landfill
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Define composting and give an example
Placing biogreadbale waste onto a compost pile so that it van decompose and be use as fertiliser. On a bigger scale anaerobic digestion can be created in an enclosed reactor, sped up by biological treatment. Germany,Denmark, Italy all use such plants
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Define sustainability
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising those of the future
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List the environmental needs of the present
Monitor air pollution, conserve resources, renweable energy
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List the political needs of the present
democracy and accessibility
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List the health and welfare needs of the present
equal access, financial support, affordability of healthcare
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List the social/cultural needs of the present
equality and educational choice
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List the economic needs of the present
range and accessibility of jobs
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Give an example of a sustainable city
Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, began building in 2006
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Changing retail patterns in the UK: 1970's
Supermarkets were built in the residential areas and town centres, selling a range of food and non-food related items at the same checkout. Car ownership increase means families can do big shops.
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Changing retail patterns in the UK: 1980's
Non-food related retail parks expanded such as DIY/electrical stores. Built on the outskirts with access to main roads for car users.
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Changing retail patterns in the UK: 1990's
Huge out of town shopping centres were built on the edge of major urban areas and close to major motorways
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Changing retail patterns in the UK: 21st century
E-commerce is increasing. Electronic home shopping. Supermarkets offer online home delivery services. People still however want to shop on the high street to have access to what they are purchasing
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Describe past patterns of retail
convenience goods were purchased on a regular basis from a local supplier, especially if perishable. Comparison goods (higher order goods) were purchased less often and from further distances. Multiple shops eg greengrocer/bakery/deli were visited/
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Describe current patterns of retail
People shop less frequently and do 1 main shop in bulk at a well known multiple (chain store) eg Tesco. Cars mean people can buy in bulk. People can store more foodstuffs due to fridges/freezers. Internet is used for convenience/competitive prices.
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Name 8 ways to regenerate a CBD
New facilities, Themed areas, Tourism, Street entertainment, New office developments, 24 hour cities, Beautification, Residential land uses
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Describe how new facilities can regenerate a CBD
Encourage a wider range of leisure facilities eg cafes, bars, music venues, cinemas & theatres. New smaller shops eg Sainsburys local/Tesco express sell goods targeted at local needs. Use of CCTV to reduce crime. Increased public transport to the CBD
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Describe how themed areas can regenerate a CBD
In Manchester taxis are prioritised for women after 10pm, this is called the 'Lady Cab' service. In Japan there are female-only train carriages. Gay area in Manchester/Cultural quarter in Sheffield.
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Describe how tourism can regenerate a CBD
Shops are encouraged to stay open on Bank Holidays. Construction of all-weather shopping malls with heating and air-con with low cost parking. Conservation/refurbishment of buildings. Developing flagship attractions eg Westfield White City
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Describe how street entertainment can regenerate a CBD
By promoting this in places such as Covent Garden and making specific busking spots eg at Tube staions
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Describe how new office developments can regenerate a CBD
Landmark buildings to house prestigious new offices encourages business back to the CBD and raises its status. Hotels and conference centres encourage business people to stay in the CBD on business trips.
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Describe how becoming a 24 hour city can regenerate a CBD
Organisation of shopping events such as Christmas fairs or late night shopping. Developing nightlife such as clubbing although this requires increased policing
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Describe how beautification can regenerate a CBD
Provision of an attractive shopping environment with pedestrianisation, street furniture and landscaping. Smooth pavements for pushchairs/the disabled/the elderly. Tackling crime through better street lighting and transparent bus shelters.
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Describe how residential land uses can regenerate a CBD
Encouraging residential activities by providing flats to rent above shops, gentrification, and the building of new upmarket apartments. This is also encouraged through visual improvements and beautification.
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List 5 factors affecting retail change
Cheaper land/increased economies of scale, expensive/restricted parking in the CBD, increased car ownership, freezers can preserve perishables=less frequent shopping, shopping is now a social/leisure activity.
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What does increased economies of scale mean?
If for example, an out of town shopping centre is built on land that has a cheaper value than that of an in town chopping centre, they can reduce prices or offer free car parking as they have more money to spend on those things rather than the land.
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Development of a CBD case study?
Kings Cross
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Out of town shopping centre case study?
Bluewater, Kent
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Card 2

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what is Death rate?

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Number of deaths per 1000 per year

Card 3

Front

What is natural change?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Why has rapid urbanisation taken place on a global scale?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What percentage of the global population live in urban areas?

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