Workplace stress

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 13-04-14 12:47
Define workplace stressors.
Aspects of our working environment that we experience as stressful, and which cause a stress reaction in our body.
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What are the 4 main sources of stress in the workplace, and why are they stressful?
Home-work interface-balancing the demands of home and work. Environment-noise and heat need more energy to overcome them. Workload-Too much and too little can lead to stress. Lack of control-Other people determining workload and patterns.
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What did Karasek suggest after their study?
That how levels of workload and control interact to produce workplace stress, and high workload or low control on it's own is fine, but both together make people more likely to suffer workplace stress.
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Define job demands.
Having a lot to do and limited time to do it, or having more than 1 things to do at a time.
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Define control.
Having control over what you do and when you do it as well as deciding how things should be done.
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What do deadlines affect?
Workload and control.
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What did Marmot et al. do in their civil servant study?
They conducted a longitudinal study lasting over 10 years and tracked 7000 men and 3500 women aged 35-55 in mainly office jobs. They completed questionnaires on job perception, health and social support, and underwent a health screening. 75% stayed.
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What were the findings of Marmot et al.'s experiment?
No link between high workload and stress related illness, low control, pay and social support in work were more important factors, with higher rates of absence due to illness, and were twice as likely to have CHD, other factors in account.
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Evaluate Marmot et al.'s experiment.
Questionnaires-exaggeration, demand characteristics-reduces validity, how much work or control people think they have is most important, more effective than asking boss. External validity-application to other workers. Small office-less job security.
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How can Marmot et al.'s research be used in the real world?
Their findings can be used to improve working conditions and health, which can lead to fewer absences by promoting social support within workplace by organising social activities or developing a mentoring scheme.
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Define work underload.
Situations where people are employed in jobs that are beneath their capacities or where they're given tasks that lack creativity or stimulation.
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Who did a study into work underload?
Shultz et al.
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What did Shultz et al. do in their study?
Gathered data from 16 000 adults across 15 European countries.
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What were the findings of Shultz et al.'s study?
Employees reporting work overload had the highest levels of stress-related illness, however those who reported low job satisfaction and absence due to stress-related illness.
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What weakness did Lazarus discover about workplace stressors?
That studies miss that there are individual differences in the way people react and cope with stressors. His approach says that the degree to which a workplace stressor is perceived depends on the person's perceived ability to cope.
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What did Ritvanen et al. investigate?
Whether aerobic fitness could reduce the physiological stress responses teacher experienced.
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How did Ritvanen et al. carry out their experiment?
They got 26 male and female teachers to take exercise test, they measured their physiological responses and perceived stress.
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What were the results of Ritvanen et al.'s experiment?
Teachers with the highest levels of aerobic fitness had lower levels of heart rate, muscle tension and perceived stress, suggesting that improving aerobic fitness may reduce negative effects of work stress in teachers.
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What were Johansson et al. investigating?
Workplace stressors and stress-related illnesses and the role that control played.
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How did Johansson et al. carry out their experiment?
They studied a small group of workers in a sawmill who were finishers. The rate at which they worked determined the output. Sources of stress were responsibility, isolation, control, repetitive work. Measured their stress hormones and illness.
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What were the findings of Johansson et al.'s experiment?
The finishers had higher levels of stress hormones than other workers and how more stress-related illnesses.
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What did Johansson et al. conclude after their experiment?
That repetitiveness, lack of control and high responsibility lead to stress, which leads to illness.
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What did Johansson et al. recommend after they had finished their study?
The finishers should move to a salary structure and should be allowed to rotate jobs.
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Evaluate Johansson et al.'s experiment.
Individual differences weren't controlled, people who are more sensitive to stress may have higher risk jobs, did not conclude which stressor was the most stressful; one may be more stressful than the others. Natural experiment: no control.
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Name 3 studies into workload and their findings.
Belkic: Relation between job strain and CVD. Collins: Workload contributed to stress in the police force. HSE: Identified overwork and underwork were stressors in hospital staff.
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What did Langer and Rodin do and find in their experiment.
Studied residents in nursing homes. 1 group could control their environment, the others couldn't. Nurses found 71% of the no control group were worse 30% died. 93% of the control group improved, rated themselves happier and more active. 15% had died.
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What did Schaubroeck et al. do in their experiment?
Surveyed 217 people on how they felt about responsibility, control, confidence and dealing with issues in their job. Their saliva was tested to indicate how well the immune system was working.
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What were the findings of Schaubroeck et al.'s study?
Those who perceived they had control, but didn't feel confident had the highest levels of stress. The least stressed were those who had control and were confident.
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How did Naylor and Malcomson carry out their experiment?
They studied 644 secondary English teachers in Canada. They got them to complete a survey on their levels of workload and stress, and were asked to identify the most significant aspects of stress.
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What did Naylor and Malcomson's study show?
They reported widespread symptoms of stress and varying abilities to cope. Female and young teachers reported the worst impact and the least ability to cope. 85% reported that work resulted in fatigue. 1/3 reported health problems in relation.
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Describe what is meant by burnout and how workers get to burnout.
Burnout describes workers' reactions to chronic stress. It becomes more likely when workers must deal with high workloads, high job stress and high expectations.
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What can workplace stress do to mental health?
It can't directly cause mental health problems, but when combined with other problems it can make mental health problems more likely to occur.
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Why is the evolution of work and work stressors a weakness of research?
Because it means out current knowledge rapidly becomes out of date, so psychological research may lag behind work practices.
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What did Keenan and Newton do in their study, what did they find, and what did they conclude?
Used interviews in a study of engineers and found that many stressors aren't included in questionnaires, so concluded that interviews are a more valid way of assessing the impact of workplace stressors.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 4 main sources of stress in the workplace, and why are they stressful?

Back

Home-work interface-balancing the demands of home and work. Environment-noise and heat need more energy to overcome them. Workload-Too much and too little can lead to stress. Lack of control-Other people determining workload and patterns.

Card 3

Front

What did Karasek suggest after their study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define job demands.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define control.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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