Variation in Biochemistry and cell structure

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What carries oxygen around the body?
Haemoglobin
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Where is haemoglobin found?
Red blood cells
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What structure does haemoglobin have?
Quaternary, more than one polypeptide chain, each chain contains a haem group (which contains iron- giving red colour)
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Does haemoglobin have a high or low affinity for oxygen?
High affinity- each molecule can carry four oxygen molecules. This is called oxyhaemoglobin.
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Is the reaction for haemoglobin and oxygen reversable?
Yes- Oxygen+ Haemoglobin= Oxyhaemoglobin
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What is the partial pressure of oxygen?
Measure of oxygen concentration, the greater the partial pressure of oxygen the greater level of dissolved oxygen in cells
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What does a low partial pressure of oxygen mean?
Oxyhaemoglobin unloads is oxygen
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What does a high partial pressure of oxygen mean?
Oxygen loads into haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
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What part of the body has high partial pressure?
Alveoli in lungs
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What part of the body has a low partial pressure?
Red blood cells
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What does a dissociation curve show?
How saturated the haemoglobin is with oxygen at any given partial pressure
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What happens to haemoglobin at higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide?
Gives up its oxygen more readily. When cells respire they produce carbondioxide, increases the rate of unloading, moving the shift down (right), saturation of bloody with oxygen is lower for given partial pressure, more oxygen released= Bohr effect
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What affiinity for oxygen does an organism have that lives in low oxygen concentration?
Higher affinity for oxygen- dissociation curve is to the left of ours.
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What affinity for oxygen does an active/high demand for oxygen organism have?
Lower affinity for oxygen- dissociation curve is to the right of ours.
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What are carbohydrates made from?
Monosaccharides
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What reaction joins monosaccharides together?
Condensation- glycosidic bond- releases water
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What are the main three polysaccharides?
Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
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What is starch used for?
Cells get energy from starch, plants store excess glucose as starch.
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What are the characteristics of starch?
Made from amylose (unbranched alpha glucose, coiled, good for storage), and amylopectin (branches alpha glucose, increasing surface area) and is insoluble- good for storage.
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What are the characterisitics of glycogen?
Animals store glucose as glycogen, many side branches so has a large surface area for quick releases of energy, compact so good for storage.
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What are the characteristics of cellulose?
Long unbranched chains of beta glucose, bonds are straight, held by hydrogen bonds to form strong microfibrils, good for structural support in plants.
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What are the key parts of an animal cell?
Plasma membrane (controls what goes in and out), cytoplasm (chemical reactions), nucleus (contains genetic material), mitochondria (respiration occurs, releasing energy), ribosomes (proteins are made)
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What are the key parts of a plant cell?
Same as animal, plus: Rigid cell wall (made of cellulose for support), permanent vacuole (cell sap), chloroplasts (photosynthesis occurs- contains green chlorphyll), chlorplasts have thylakoid membranes, grana linked by lamellae, and stroma
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Card 2

Front

Where is haemoglobin found?

Back

Red blood cells

Card 3

Front

What structure does haemoglobin have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Does haemoglobin have a high or low affinity for oxygen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Is the reaction for haemoglobin and oxygen reversable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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