Van Ijzendoorn + Kroonenburg and Ainsworth et al

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 05-04-15 17:14
what is the deciding factor as to whether an attachment will be secure or insecure?
the relationship with the PCG - i.e. the way that the PCG responds to the infant
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what are the five behaviour categories assessed in the strange situation experiment?
1. proximity and contact seeking, 2. contact maintaining, 3. proximity and interaction avoiding, 4. proximity and interaction resisting, 5. exploratory behaviours
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what sampling technique was used?
time sampling - ever 15 seconds behaviour was record and scored on an intensity scale of 1-7
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who were the ps?
106 middle class infants
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why might the classification of attachment type not be valid in this experiment
as what is being measured is a particular relationship rather than an actual trait of an individual
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what are the response of a securely attached infant?
showing attachment behaviours - seeking and comfortable with social interaction
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what are the responses of an insecurely avoidant infant?
avoids social interaction and intimacy
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what are the responses of an insecurely resistant infant?
seeks and rejects social interaction and intimacy
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what percentage of infants had multiple attachments within one month of first attachment in schaffer and emerson's experiment?
29%
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what percentage of infants had multiple attachments within 6 months after their first attachments?
78%
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does this support or go against monotropy?
provides evidence against it
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what is Kibbutzim?
on israeli communal farms there are creches for babies once they're a few days old so that the parents can work and then drop in and play for about 3 hrs, it provides a family setting and greater peer contact.
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what does socialisation allow us to do?
interact effectively with other members of our culture through learning the rules of the culture
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what is an individualist culture and give and example?
a culture that values independence rather than reliance on others e.g. USA
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what is a collectivist culture and give an example?
a culture that values interdependence over independence i.e. on the collective over the individual e.g. Japan
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in Vaz Ijzendoorn's and Kroonenburg's study what was the most common form of attachment in every study?
secure attachment
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what did this study reveal about intra-cultural differences?
the assumption that all children from a certain culture are raised the same way is an oversimplification as intra-cultural variation was 1.5 times grater than inter-culture variation.
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why was this?
within one culture there rare many subcultures
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where was the lowest proportion of securely attached infants found and what was the percentage?
china - 50%
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where was the highest proportion of securely attached infants found and what was the percentage?
britain and sweden - 75%
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how has this study used imposed etic and what does it mean?
it uses a measuring technique developed in one culture to study another - it means that the measuring technique is not valid.
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what 2 things did Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg want to investigate?
1. whether cross-cultural differences in attachment do exist, 2. whether there are intra-cultural differences in attachment
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what did VI + K exclude from their meta-analysis?
studies looking at 'special groups' such as twins or downs syndrome, or those with fewer than 35 infants
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what idea does the fact that this experiment shows that secure attachment is the norm support
secure attachment is best for healthy social and emotional development
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what did Takahashi reveal that criticises the strange situation.
japanese babies are rarely separated form their mothers and therefore this might be why they appeared more distressed than the american children and seem like they're insecurely attached.
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what are the five behaviour categories assessed in the strange situation experiment?

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1. proximity and contact seeking, 2. contact maintaining, 3. proximity and interaction avoiding, 4. proximity and interaction resisting, 5. exploratory behaviours

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what sampling technique was used?

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Card 4

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who were the ps?

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why might the classification of attachment type not be valid in this experiment

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