Attachment

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  • Attachment
    • 1. Caregiver-infant interactions
      • Non verbal communications-these are argued to form the basis of attachment between an infant and caregiver. it is the manner in which the infant and caregiver respond to each other that determines the formation of attachment.
      • Reciprocity-responding to the action of another with a similar action where the action of one partner elicits a response from the other.
        • Jaffe et al(1973)-infants coordinated actions with caregivers in a kind of conversation
        • Brazelton(1979)-this is important for later communication-allows the caregiver to anticipate the infant's behaviour and respond appropriately.
      • Interactional synchrony-when two people interact they tend to mirror what the other is doing in terms of facial and body movements, includes imitating emotions
        • Meltzoff and Moore(1977)-controlled observation-interaction between an infant and an adult, displayed facial expression and a hand gesture, found that infants would imitate, so it is intentional, and innate
      • Evaluation
        • Problems with testing infant behaviour
        • Failure to replicate-Koepe et al(1983)
        • real or pseudo-imitation-Piaget 1962
    • 2.The Development of attachment
      • Schaffer and Emerson(1964)
        • 1. Indiscriminate attachments-birth to two months-similar responses to animate and inanimate objects, towards the end more familiar with smiling faces-reciprocity and interactional synchrony play a role
        • 2. The beginnings of attachment-4 months-prefer human company and can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people(no stranger anxiety shown)
        • 3. Discriminate attachment- begin to protest when one particular person puts them down(separation anxiety), they show especial joy at reunion, formed a primary attachment figure, they also begin to display stranger anxiety.
        • 4. Multiple attachments-attached tp other parent, grandparents, siblings, other relatives, friends, neighbours-secondary attachments.
      • Evaluation
        • unreliable data
        • biased sample
        • challenging monotropy-Rutter(1995), Bowlby
        • Stage theories
    • 3. Animal Studies of Attachment
      • Lorenz(1935)
        • Imprinting is an innate readiness to develop a strong bond with the mother which takes place during a specific time in development-long lasting and irreversible
          • Evaluation: Research support-Guiton(1966), criticisms of imprinting-Hoffman(1996)
      • Harlow(1959)
        • Rhesus monkeys-two wire mothers- development of attachment to the person who offers contact comfort not food.
          • Evaluation: confounding variable, generalising animal studies to human behaviour
    • Explanations of attachment
      • Learning Theory-
        • suggests that behaviour is learned through classical and operant condition
          • Classical-learning through association
          • Operant-learning through reinforcement-Dollard and Miller(1950)
        • Evaluation-the theory is based on animal studies, learning theory has some explanatory power, attachment is not based on food
      • Bowlby's Theory
        • why attachment forms-attachment is innate and adaptive-evolutionary perspective
        • How attachment forms
          • Critical period-3-6 months
          • social releasers
          • monotropy
        • Consequences of attachment
          • internal working model
      • Evaluation
        • is attachment adaptive?
        • a sensitive period rather than critical-Rutter et al (2010)
        • multiple attachment vs monotropy-Rutter (1995)
        • Continuity hypothesis-Sroufe et al(2005)
    • 6. Ainsworth's Strange Situation-Types of Attachment
      • Types of attachment
        • Secure attachment
        • insecure attachment
        • insecure avoidant
        • insecure resistant
      • aim: to see how infants aged between 9 and 18 months behave under conditions of mild stress and also novelty. stress created in the strange situation by the presence of the stranger and by separation from a caregiver
      • Evaluation
        • other types of attachment-Main and Solomon(1986)
        • high reliability-Ainsworth et al (1978)
        • real world application-Cooper et al(2005)
        • low internal validity- Main and Weston(1981)
    • 7. Cultural Variations in Attachment
      • van IJzendoorn and Kroonenburg(1988)
        • used meta analysis to discover whether there were differences in attachment types between cultures, found that secure attachment was the most common type of attachment across all the 8 countries they studied
          • Evaluation
            • comparison of countries rather than cultures
            • similarities may be due to global culture
        • Similarities -Tronick et al(1992)
        • Differences-Grossman and Grossman(1991)
    • 8. Bowlby's theory of Maternal Deprivation
      • the value of maternal care
      • critical period
      • long term consequences
        • Research- 44 Juvenile thieves(Bowlby (1944))
      • Evaluation
        • real world applications
        • too simplistic(Rutter 1981)
        • individual differences(Barett, 1997)
        • support for long term effects- Bifulco et al(1992)
    • 9. Romanian orphan studies: effects of institutionalisation
      • Study of Romanian orphans: Rutter and Sonuga-Barke(2010)
      • Effects of institutionalisation
        • physical underdevelopment-Gardner, 1972
        • intellectual underfunctioning-Skodak and Skeels(1949)
        • disinhibited attachment
        • poor parenting-Quinton et al(1984)
      • Evaluation
        • individual differences
        • real life application-Singer et al
        • value of longitudinal studies
    • 10. The Influence of Early Attachment
      • The role of the internal working model
      • Key study-Hazan and Shaver(1987)-used a Love Quiz
      • Behaviours influenced by the internal working model
        • Childhood
        • Poor Parenting
      • Evaluation
        • overly determinist
        • research is correlational -Kagan
        • Low correlations

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