Vaccination

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Passive Immunity
Antibodies are passed to an individual from an outside source so no direct contact with a pathogen is neccessary. Immunity acquired immediately as antibodies are not being produced by the individual.
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Passive Immunity
Antibodies are not replaced when broken down so no memory cells are formed and there is no lasting immunity e.g. passed across placenta from mother.
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Active Immunity
Production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system so direct contact with a pathogen is neccessary. Immunity takes time to develop but is long lasting.
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Natural active immunity
Gaining immunity through the primary immune response.
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Artificial active immunity
Gaining immunity through a vaccination.
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What makes a successful vaccination?
Available in sufficient quantities= immunise most of pop. Few side affects as may discourage pop from having it. Trained staff with appropriate skills. Production storage and transportation available.
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Herd Immunity
A large proportion of the population has been vaccinated= difficult for the pathogen to spread.
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Advantages of herd immunity
Could be dangerous to vaccinate ill people. Not possible to vaccinate everyone e.g. babies. Highly improbable that vulnerable person will come in contact with infected person.
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Antigenic variability
Pathogen mutates frequently so it's antigens change. Vaccine becomes ineffective as immune system no longer recognises new antigens.
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What are the difficulties of producing a vaccine?
Disease is developed immediately after vaccination. Antigenic variability. Many varieties of a pathogen. Pathogen may conceal themselves inside cells or live in places out of reach e.g. intestines. Ethical objections.
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What are the ethical issues of a vaccine?
Animal testing. Side-effects causing long-term harm. Trialing vaccine with unknown health risks.
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Card 2

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Antibodies are not replaced when broken down so no memory cells are formed and there is no lasting immunity e.g. passed across placenta from mother.

Back

Passive Immunity

Card 3

Front

Production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system so direct contact with a pathogen is neccessary. Immunity takes time to develop but is long lasting.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Gaining immunity through the primary immune response.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Gaining immunity through a vaccination.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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