Act Utilitarianism

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  • Created by: bnaomi
  • Created on: 16-04-16 20:01
What is Act Utilitarianism?
A version of utilitarianism where the rightness and wrongness of an action are calculated by the amount of happiness resulting from these actions.
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Who came up with Act Utilitarianism?
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832).
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Why were public health conditions in B______'s time awful?
Too many people moved from self-sufficient countries to new industrial towns for a better life.
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What were one of Bentham's main motives for his Quantitative theory?
He thought it was unfair for the majority to live in unhappiness while the minorities were well off.
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Bentham came to realize that humans pursue what and avoid what?
Humans pursue PLEASURE and avoid PAIN -which is a moral fact.
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Through this moral fact what are we able to identify?
We are able to identify what is MORAL and what is NON-MORAL, what is GOOD and what is BAD, what we SHOULD DO and what we SHOULDN'T DO.
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Through this Bentham concludes that as humans we are motivated by what?
As humans we're motivated by happiness when making moral decisions.
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This encouraged Bentham to become a what?
A Hedonist.
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What is Hedonism?
Belief that pleasure is the sole good (or chief/intrinsic good) and pain is the sole evil. A Hedonist main goal in life is to strive for maximum pleasure/happiness.
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What is the Principle of Utility?
The rightness and wrongness of an action according to its usefulness
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Good is the maximum what?
Maximum Pleasure
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What is the "greatest good"?
Greatest pleasure or happiness, and therefore creates less pain for the majority of people.
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Why is it good to consider greater good when making a moral decision?
So that the best or most moral action we can perform is one that brings the best consequences for majorities happiness.
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Therefore why is Act Utilitarianism called act!?
Because it's based on ACTions!
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When faced with a moral dilemma, how does the principle of utility help?
The Principle of Utility helps make a moral decisions, for instance a man choosing to shoot one person in order to save thousands.
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This makes Utilitarianism a what theory?
A teleological theory.
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why is Utilitarianism a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ theory?
Utilitarianism is a teleological theory because it determines a good act by the END RESULT.
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This also makes utilitarianism a what theory?
A consequentialist theory
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Why is Utilitarianism a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ theory?
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory because it focuses on the consequences of an action
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What is the Hedonic calculus?
A systematic approach whereby the effects of an action can be measured or calculated by the amount of pleasure it produces.
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What are the 7 factors of the Hedonic Calculus
D- duration, R- richness, P- purity, R- remoteness, I- intensity, C- certainty, & E- extent.
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Why is the Hedonic Calculus good?
It's a guide that help people make the right choices, especially when there's many factors to take into account.
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What are 3 positives to Act Utilitarianism?
1) It's flexible & able to take into account individuals situations; therefore it's situational. 2) Considers many factors so the best decision can be made, i.e. the Hedonic Calculus 3) Aims to please majority of people therefore Quantitative.
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What are 3 negatives to Act Utilitarianism
1) There's more to life than pleasure, e.g. justice or equality. 2) Judges actions by their consequences but we cannot accurately predict the future therefore cannot be sure we're making the right judgement. 3) The Hedonic Calculus is too clinical.
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Card 2

Front

Who came up with Act Utilitarianism?

Back

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832).

Card 3

Front

Why were public health conditions in B______'s time awful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were one of Bentham's main motives for his Quantitative theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Bentham came to realize that humans pursue what and avoid what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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