Utilitarianism

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What is the quote that shows Bentham's hedonistic views?
Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.”
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What is Hedonism?
View that pleasure = chief good.
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What is the principle of utility?
"Greatest good for greatest number". Good = happiness, utility = usefulness of action
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Name the seven parts of Bentham's Hedonic Calculus .
Richness (propinquity), Extent, Duration, Purity, Remoteness (fecundity), Intensity and Certainity
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What is the quote of John Stuart Mill that emphasises his belief in higher and lower pleasures?
“It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.”
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Name John Stuart Mill's form of Utilitarianism and what it does.
Rule - looks at consequences of everyone following a particular rule, calculating overall utility of acceptance or rejection of it
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Name one weakness of rule utilatarianism.
Following rules in cases where overall util. demands it = rule worship.
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Name Bentham's form of Utilitarianism and what it does.
Act - Looks at consequences of acts to help calculate utility each time act is performed
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Describe the concept of universalisability.
What's right/wrong for one person = right/wrong for all; indiv. happiness = comm. happiness
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Name two weaknesses of act utilatarianism.
Can justify disobeying impt. moral rules, takes too much time to calculate morality of each choice
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Name the three people most commonly associated w/ preference utilatarianism.
Peter Singer, R.M Hare, Richard Brandt
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How does preference utilatarianism see people?
As ends, not means to ends
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In what way is preference utilatarianism different to act utilitarianism?
It believes we should follow best interest of greatest number, rather than calculating pleasure vs.pain
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How does R.M Hare think we need to approach moral decision making?
By considering preferences of ourselves + others
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What quote from R.M Hare relates to his view on moral decision making?
"Equal preferences count equally, whatever their content."
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What does R.M Hare advocate to find out the preferences of others?
Empathy
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What quote from Singer shows his view that moral decisions should be made after accounting for everyone?
"Our preferences cannot cont more than the preferences of others."
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What does Peter Singer believe we should take the role of when involved in moral decision-making?
An impartial spectator
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Give two strengths of preference utilitarianism.
Secular and based on consequences.
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Give two weaknesses of preference utilitarianism.
Complicated to apply + challenges sanctity of life
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How would a Utilitarian respond to abortion?
Consider if it bring about greatest good
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How would a Utilitarian respond to just war?
Assesses results it produces - more happiness than unhappiness, then it's good
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How would a Utilitarian respond to euthanasia?
Rule/act agree - good consequences = freedom from pain, if life brings more pain than suffering it should be ended.
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How would a Utilitarian respond to genetic engineering?
Better to save many future lives @ cost of current embryos.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Hedonism?

Back

View that pleasure = chief good.

Card 3

Front

What is the principle of utility?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the seven parts of Bentham's Hedonic Calculus .

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the quote of John Stuart Mill that emphasises his belief in higher and lower pleasures?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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