Unit 2 Education key terms

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: jessica
  • Created on: 27-02-14 09:45
explain what is meant by the term 'academies'
schools that are independent of local authority control set up by the Labour goverment of 1997 to 2010 in inner-cities, and schools that opted out of local authority control under the coalitation goverment from 2010
1 of 105
explain what is meant by the term 'achieved status'
a position in society which affects the way others view you that is earned, at least partly through your own efforts eg: a job
2 of 105
explain what is meant by the term 'anti-school subcultures'
subcultures opposed to the dominant values of a school
3 of 105
explain what is meant by the term 'bands/baning'
the placing of pupils into broad groups according to their general academic ability
4 of 105
explain what is meant by 'catchment area'
the geographical area from which pupils eligible to attend the school are drawn
5 of 105
explain what is meant by 'city technology college'
new schools set up in inner-cities with an emphasis on scentific and technical subjects along with maths
6 of 105
explain what is meant by 'class subculture'
the distincive lifestyle associated with a particular class
7 of 105
explain what is meant by collectivist
putting the interest of social group before the interest of the individual
8 of 105
explain what is meant by compensatory education
additional education provided to try to adress underperformance by particular social groups in the education system
9 of 105
explain what is meant by complementarity
where different methods are combined to dovetail different aspects of an investigation
10 of 105
explain what is meant by conflict theory
theory of society, which sees one or more groups in competition for scarce or valued goods examples include marxism and feminism
11 of 105
explain what is meant by comprehensive school
a type of school attended by all children regardless of their ability ir aptitude
12 of 105
explain what is meant by correspondence principle
in the marxist theory of bowles and gintis, the idea that the structure, organistation and values of educational institutions reflect or correspond to, the structure organisation and values of the workplace in capitalist businesses
13 of 105
explain what is meant by counterculture
the beliefs and lifestyle of a group who are opposed to dominant culture
14 of 105
explain what is meant by counter-school culture
the beliefs of a group who are opposed to the values of thoese in authority at a school
15 of 105
explain what is meant by cream-skimming
schools or other educational institutions selecting the most able pupils to attend their institution
16 of 105
explain what is meant by crisis im masculinity
the idea tht clear roles from men in society no longer exist as a result of decline in male-dominated manual work or changes in societys culture
17 of 105
explain what is meant by cultural deprivation
lacking or being deficient in the attitudes, values, knowledge, lingustic ability or or lifestyle necessary to succeed in the education stystem
18 of 105
explain what is meant by cultural capital
non- material assests such as classical knowledge and lifestyle, which are valued by society and can be helpful in achieving educational success
19 of 105
explain what is meant by cultural factors
factors concerned with lifestyle, attitudes and values, which which might affect achievement in education, as opposed to material factors
20 of 105
explain what is meant by culture
the norms, values, attitudes and lifestyle of a social group
21 of 105
explain what is meant by curriculum
the formal content of what is taught in schools and other educational institutions
22 of 105
explain what is meant by deferred gratification
putting of pleasure now inorder to achieve greater pleasure in the future eg: saving for a deposit on a house
23 of 105
explain what is meant by deterministic
a theory, which sees behaviour as entirely determined by external circumstances, leaving the individual with little or no choice about how they behave
24 of 105
explain what is meant by deviants
people who do not abide by the norms of society
25 of 105
explain what is meant by differential educational achievement
systematic difference in the preformance of social groups in the education system , eg between social class
26 of 105
explain what is meant by disconnected choosers
parents who lack the skills and resources to exercise choice effectively in the education system
27 of 105
explain what is meant by dominant culture
the culture that is most powerful and has the highest status in society
28 of 105
explain what is meant by economic base
in marxist theory, the foundation of society consisting of the economic system
29 of 105
explain what is meant by economic capital
material assests such as housing and income which can be helpful in achieving educational sucess
30 of 105
explain what is meant by education action zone
areas of deprived inner-cities where additional compensatory schemes were started in the 1970s
31 of 105
explain what is meant by eductional triage
the rationing of eduction so that only thoese who are likely to attain targets through recieving extra help are provided with additional assitance
32 of 105
explain what is meant by egoism
according to durkheim, a situation where people are not well intergrated into social groups and therefore concerned with themselves rather than others
33 of 105
explain what is meant by elaborated codes
a type of speech where the meanings are filled in and made explict, sentences tend to be longer and more complex than in restricted codes
34 of 105
explain what is meant is meant by equality of oppurtunity
when every individual has an equal chance of sucess based on their own ability and effort
35 of 105
explain what is meant by ethical factors
factors concerned with morality such as deception, wlefare, consent, debriefing, confidentiality and privacy
36 of 105
explain what is meant by ethnic group
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
37 of 105
explain what is meant by external rewards
things that are given to someone in recognition of their own efforts eg: wages or exam results
38 of 105
explain what is meant by ethnic minority
a group within a community which has different national or cultural traditions from the main population.
39 of 105
explain what is meant by formal curriculum
the offical content eg: subject and courses, of educational institutions
40 of 105
explain what is meant by free market
a system in which businesses can compete with one another without state interferance
41 of 105
explain what is meant by free school
schools set up by charities, teachers, businesses or parents but funded by the state
42 of 105
explain what is meant by functionally important jobs
occupations, which are believed to play a particularly crucial role in the effective functioning of society
43 of 105
explain what is meant by future time orientation
thinking ahead rather than living in the moment
44 of 105
explain what is meant by gender socialisation
the way in which males and females are taught to behave differently in a particular society
45 of 105
explain what is meant by grammar schools
secondary schools in which admission is granted on the basis of ability, originally measured through an IQ test, the 11+
46 of 105
explain what is meant by grant maintained schools
schools funded directly by goverment, independent of LEAs
47 of 105
explain what is meant by hegemony/hegemonic
political or cultural dominace
48 of 105
explain what is meant by hidden curriculum
the hidden,informal messages and lessons outside the formal curriculum
49 of 105
explain what is meant by hierarchy
a system in which members of an organization or society are ranked according to relative status or authority.
50 of 105
explain what is meant by ideal pupil
the image held by teachers of the sort of pupil they would choose to have in their classes if they were allowed to select those whom they taught
51 of 105
explain what is meant by immediate gratification
living life in the moment and enjoying yourself now eg: getting your wages and spending it instantly
52 of 105
explain what is meant by individual achievement
when each person isn primarily concerned for their own sucess rather than the sucess of a social group as a whole
53 of 105
explain what is meant by individualism
an emphasis upon the desires or interest of individual people rather than those of a wider social group
54 of 105
explain what is meant by institutional racism
any kind of system of inequality based on race
55 of 105
explain what is meant by interactionism
an interpretivist sociological prespective, which emphasises meanings, motives and self-concepts
56 of 105
explain what is meant IQ test
an intelligence test designed to test a person's abstract reasoning ability
57 of 105
explain what is meant key informant
a respondent or interviewee who is particularly helpful to a researcher
58 of 105
explain what is meant by label/labelling
attaching a negative or positive opinion towards individuals or groups
59 of 105
explain what is meant by labour market
where employers compete to hire the best, and the workers compete for the best satisfying job
60 of 105
explain what is meant by league tables
tables ranking schools in terms of their preformance in exams or by other criteria
61 of 105
explain what is meant by LEAs
local education authorities responsible for running most aspects of the education system in a particular area
62 of 105
explain what is meant by legitimate
Conforming to the law or to rules, hence being fair and reasonable
63 of 105
explain what is meant by manual labour
work which involves physical efforts rather than thoughts
64 of 105
explain what is meant by marketisation
introducing competiton into education along with formula funding so that educational institutions start to act like businesses
65 of 105
explain what is meant by meritrocracy/meritocratic society
A system in which advancement is based on individual ability or achievement.eg: jobs
66 of 105
explain what is meant by migration
the movement of people between different geographical areas
67 of 105
explain what is meant by mixed ability
a class where all pupils are taught together regardless of their level of ability
68 of 105
explain what is meant by mode of production
a system of producing things which dominate society eg capitalism
69 of 105
explain what is meant by moral panic
An instance of public anxiety or alarm in response to a problem regarded as threatening the moral standards of society
70 of 105
explain what is meant by multicultural curriculum
a curriculum that reflects the lifestyles, history and interest of pupils or students from different ethnic groups
71 of 105
explain what is meant by national curriculum
subjects and subject content laid down by central government, which it is compulsory for all schools to teach eg: maths, English, introduced in the 1988
72 of 105
explain what is meant by new labour
a period in the history of the British Labour Party from the mid-1990s to the early 2000s, led by Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.
73 of 105
explain what is meant by occupational group
a body of people doing the same kind of work
74 of 105
explain what is meant by oversubscribed school
a school that more pupils wish to attend than there are places avaliable
75 of 105
explain what is meant by particularistic standards
when people are judged as particular individuals for example in the home parents judge children and only certain rules apply to that child in particular
76 of 105
explain what is meant by peer group
a group of people of approximately the same age, status, and interests.
77 of 105
explain what is meant by pre-industrial society
societies that existed before the Industrial Revolution, which took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
78 of 105
explain what is meant by privileged choosers
parents who have the resources and skills necessary to be able to make effective choices in the education system
79 of 105
explain what is meant by present-time orientation
living life in the moment rather than worring about the future
80 of 105
explain what is meant by primary socialisation
the first stage of the progress through which children learn the culture of their society, it takes place in the family
81 of 105
explain what is meant by private enterprise
businesses owned by individuals or shareholders and run in order to make a profit
82 of 105
explain what is meant by private schools
schools run by non-state organisations where people have to pay to attend
83 of 105
explain what is meant by progressive taxation
a taxation policy designed to reduce inequality in society by taking more tax from those on high incomes than those on low incomes
84 of 105
explain what is meant by public schools
high status and expensive private schools in Britain
85 of 105
explain what is meant by racism
the belief that one race possess characteristics which make them more superior to another race, hence hatred or discrimination is shown towards that particular race
86 of 105
explain what is meant by right wing
a political party which tends to favour free-market over state intervention
87 of 105
explain what is meant by role allocation
determining which individuals carry out which roles eg: deciding who does what jobs
88 of 105
explain what is meant by secondary modern school
schools attended by students who have failed to get into selective grammar schools
89 of 105
explain what is meant by selective schools
schools that can choose some or all of their pupils on the basis of ability or some criteria
90 of 105
explain what is meant by self-fufilling prophecy
where a prediction made about a person comes true
91 of 105
explain what is meant by social capital
the possession of valuable social contacts, which can assist in achieving sucess in education
92 of 105
explain what is meant by social facts
truthful statements about social phenomena
93 of 105
explain what is meant by social mobility
the movement of people between social groups, especially social class
94 of 105
explain what is meany by social solidarity
a sense of belonging, commitment and loyalty to a social group
95 of 105
explain what is meant by socialisation
the process through which people learn the culture of their society
96 of 105
explain what is meant by streaming
the placing of pupils into groups according to their general academic ability
97 of 105
explain what is meant by subculture
a group within a wider culture, which has significatntly different norms, attitudes, values and lifestyle to other groups in society
98 of 105
explain what is meant by subject class
the group in society who are dominated by the ruling class.The subject class is exploited by the ruling class
99 of 105
explain what is meant by superstructure
the non-economic parts of society such as the family, which are shaped by the economy and controlled by ruling class
100 of 105
explain what is meant by sure start
schemes to provide additional pre-school education and educational resources,including help to families in deprived inner-city areas
101 of 105
explain what is meant by technical schools
schools for those believed to have technical talents set up as part of the tripartite system
102 of 105
explain what is meant by tripartite system
the system of secondary state education set up in Britain in 1944 in which children went to one of 3 types of school- grammar, secondary modern or technical
103 of 105
explain what is meant by universalistic standards
when people are judged according to an abstract set of standards
104 of 105
explain what is meant by values
general beliefs about what is right or wrong in a particular society
105 of 105

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

explain what is meant by the term 'achieved status'

Back

a position in society which affects the way others view you that is earned, at least partly through your own efforts eg: a job

Card 3

Front

explain what is meant by the term 'anti-school subcultures'

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

explain what is meant by the term 'bands/baning'

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

explain what is meant by 'catchment area'

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »