Unit 12 Flashcards

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Leader
Someone who sets the business’s overall goals and targets for other people. Leaders guide, encourage and inspire their staff towards achieving these goals.
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Manager
Someone who sets goals and targets for the aspects of the business for which they are responsible. These goals are then met through use of a combination of financial, physical and human resources.
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4 Roles of Managers
Planning, Reporting, Organising, and Monitoring and Evaluating.
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4 Skills of Managers
Communication, Organisational, Technical, and Interpersonal.
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Levels of a Hierarchy
The number of layers of authority within an organization.
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Span of Control
The number of subordinates reporting directly to a manager.
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Centralization
Where decision-making powers are placed firmly in the hands of senior personnel.
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Decentralization
Where decision-maker powers are instead given to those at lower levels in the organization and to employees in branch offices and other locations.
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Delayering
The removal of one or more layers of hierarchy from the organisational structure.
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Flat structure
A type of organisational structure where there are few levels of hierarchy and wide spans of control.
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Tall structure
A type of organisational structure where there are many levels of hierarchy and narrow spans of control.
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Matrix Structure
A more flexible organisational structure where teams of employees with appropriate skills are assembled to carry out particular tasks.
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Autocratic Leadership
The leader of the group has full control over decision making, rarely accepting advice from the staff under them.
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Paternalistic Leadership
A variant of autocratic leadership where the leader takes the interests of the workforce into account when making decisions.
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Democratic Leadership
In a typical democratically run business, the leaders will delegate some decision-making powers to subordinates, encourage junior employees to express their views and ideas, listen to the views of junior employees and explain why certain decisions ha
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Participative Leadership
Where leaders fully involve one or more employees in determining what to do and how to do it, giving employees a high degree of control over decision-making.
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Laissez-Faire Leadership
Translates to “Leave Alone”, which accurately describes the passive role leaders in this type of business tend to take, allowing for subordinates to make numerous decisions.
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Power
A manager has power over someone when he/she can get that person to do something that otherwise they would not want to do.
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Coercive Power
Coercive power is based on the subordinate’s fear of the leader. This form of power is normally maintained by the use of threats and punishment.
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Reward Power
The ability to provide rewards for followers gives leaders a form of power. Subordinates comply with a manager’s requests because they expect to benefit through improved pay, promotion etc.
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Expert Power
Possession of particular expertise, skills and knowledge can give power. Subordinates are likely to recognize the leader’s expertise and be willing to follow suggestions.
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Position Power
Position power derives from a person’s position or job in an organization. With those higher up having more power than those down below.
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Referent Power
Referent derives from a leader’s charisma. People are likely to follow the lead (and instructions) of someone they like and admire.
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Authority
Authority is a special form of power in the sense that it implies voluntary agreement by subordinates who recognize the legitimate right of their superiors to give orders.
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Traditional Authority
A form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to tradition or custom. The main reason for the given state of affairs is that it 'has always been that way'.
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Charismatic Authority
A type of organization or leadership where authority is derived from the charisma of the leader. This type of authority is based on followers’ assessment of the person’s abilities.
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Rational / Legal Authority
A form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. The majority of the modern states of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries are this.
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Benefits of Motivated Workers
Low worker absenteeism, productive workforce, increase in innovation, low rate of labour turnover.
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Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, Self-Actualisation.
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Herzberg's Motivators
Achievement, Recognition, Work, Responsibility, Growth, and Advancement.
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Herzberg's Hygiene Factors
Company Policy, Administration, Supervision, Interpersonal Relationships, Working Conditions, Salary, Status, and Security.
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McGregor's ‘Theory X’
Employees: Dislike work, are inefficient when unmonitored, are motivated by money, avoid responsibility, and are not ambitious.
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McGregor's ‘Theory Y’
Employees: Enjoy work, are efficient even when unmonitored, often seek responsibility, and seek satisfaction from work.
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Empowerment
The process of allowing subordinates to have greater control over their working lives by letting them make many of their own decisions.
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Delegation
The passing down of authority to a junior employee for a particular task. This is often limited to specific tasks and activities.
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Job Enrichment
The process of designing jobs containing tasks of varying complexity that allow employees to use their abilities to a greater extent.
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Job Enlargement
Extends the range of duties associated with a particular job.
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Routine Decision
They are also decisions that are not unexpected, so managers expect and are prepared to make them as part of their regular duties.
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Non-Routine Decision
May need to be made because of some unexpected event. These can be taken by managers at all levels within an organization.
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Tactical Decision
Tactical decisions are medium term, less complex decisions made by middle managers. They follow on from strategic decisions and aim to meet the objectives stated in any strategic decision.
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Strategic Decision
Strategic decisions are long term, complex decisions made by senior management. These decisions will affect the entire direction of the firm.
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Proactive Decision
Proactive behavior involves acting in advance of a future situation, rather than just reacting. It means taking control and making things happen rather than just adjusting to a situation or waiting for something to happen.
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Reactive Decisions
Reacting to events or situations rather than acting first to change or prevent something.
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Statistical Process Control
Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied in order to monitor and control a process.
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Decision Trees
A decision tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes, resource costs, and utility.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Someone who sets goals and targets for the aspects of the business for which they are responsible. These goals are then met through use of a combination of financial, physical and human resources.

Back

Manager

Card 3

Front

Planning, Reporting, Organising, and Monitoring and Evaluating.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Communication, Organisational, Technical, and Interpersonal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The number of layers of authority within an organization.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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