UNIONISM AND CO-OPERATION c.1785-c.1870 - Topic 3

  • Created by: Hannah274
  • Created on: 26-04-17 15:09
What were Trade societies?
Like proto- trade unions, but for very specific skilled workers and only for each local town or city.
1 of 50
What were 'closed shop' practices?
The practice of emplying only individuals who were members of the trade union or were in good standing with a trade union.
2 of 50
Who were knobsticks?
People who continued to work during a strike, reducing it's overall effectiveness.
3 of 50
What is the difference between Trade Unions and Trade Societies?
Unions were more formal, they had a broader interest in their given trades and their geographical reach.
4 of 50
What did the growth of Trade Unions do to the dynamic between employee and employer?
The employee started to gain respect as they could band together to put more pressure on their employers.
5 of 50
Before 1825 why was it hard to create a trade union?
The Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 made it illegal.
6 of 50
How long did the cotton spinner stike of 1810 last for?
4 months.
7 of 50
What Acts were abolished in 1824?
The Combination Acts.
8 of 50
What was the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union?
Set up in 1834 it aimed to create a national union for skilled trades people.
9 of 50
What were it's effects?
It presented the impression that there was working class solidarity, and made empolyers use 'The Document' which stopped employees from joining the union. Both effects were negative.
10 of 50
Why did the 'Grand National Consolidated Trades Union' fail?
The supporters were too tired to their own specific crafts and not all workers, not enough funds to support those who went on strike, and The Document' which was used by employers to stop Union activity legally.
11 of 50
What was the aim of the Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800?
To stop unionism by making it illegal, the second one also allowed for appeals in the court and also for wage disputes to be settled legally.
12 of 50
Why were the Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 repealed in 1824?
They were not used by those punishing their employees and the Unlawful Oath Act of 1797 carried a much harsher sentence. Plus they were poorly executed so in practical terms they simply did not work.
13 of 50
What was the Master and Servant Act of 1823?
It made breaking a contract of employment punishable by imprisonment. This demonstrates that they were still firmly on the side of the employers in the fight between the working and upper classes.
14 of 50
Who were the Tolpuddle martyrs?
6 Members of a union in the village of Tolpuddle, under the 1797 Unlawful Oaths Act they were sentenced to 7 years in prison with transportation to Australia afterwards. Demonstrates the kind of treatment that many Union members had to face.
15 of 50
What was the Amalgamated Society for Engineers?
A grouping of three smaller independent unions to be able to put more pressure on their employers.
16 of 50
Why was it so important for worker's rights?
It was the first example of New Model Unionism, which made it harder for employers to dismiss the demands of their workers.
17 of 50
What was the strength of the ASE?
They had a ready supply of cash flow to protect the workers if they striked meaning that they were guaranteed pay to force the employer to back down.
18 of 50
What was the most infuential action of the ASE?
In 1859-60 the ASE created three different funds to fund workers on a strike. This made the strike last 6 months and forced the employer to come to a compromise on the length of the worker's working day.
19 of 50
Why was New Model Unionism successful in the 1860's and after?
Employers needed skilled labour as they drove Britain's economy and politicians were becoming more sympathtic to worker's rights.
20 of 50
What was the drawback the ASE?
That it only protested skilled workers who were more in demand by 1860, semi-skilled or unskilled workers could not use this system as they were not in demand as much from their employers.
21 of 50
What was the London trades council?
Established in 1860, it sought to represent the working people of London in the absence of any other body. By 1866 it had 10,000 affliates.
22 of 50
What was the Sheffield meeting of 1866?
A meeting set up by William Dronefield, it attracted 138 delegates at established the Unitied Kingdom Alliance of Organised Trades, which aimed to be an all encompassing union. It collapsed in 1867.
23 of 50
What were the Sheffield outrages of 1866?
This was a series of violent actions undertaken by a millitant group of the Saw Grinders union. They set explosions and people were even paid to murder employers that wanted to use cheap labour.
24 of 50
Why was the meeting of the Gerneral Trades Congress in 1868 important?
It is widly regarded as the founding of the Trades Union Congress or TUC.
25 of 50
Why was the meeting of the General Trade Congress of 1868 sucessful?
Skilled and unskilled workers being able to put aside their differences, and that unions were not legally represented by the law and could therefore not claim any compensation if their funds were stolen. Therefore they needed to band togther.
26 of 50
What changed about the TUC after the passage of the Second Reform Act of 1867?
They become more political, with wanting to send two men to parliment, one voted for by the working class and one by the middle-class. Demonstrating the rise of want for a labour party.
27 of 50
What was the government's reaction to NMU?
They were still conservative but were willing to reform incrementallyto keep the working class happy. If the unions could mobilise a potion of the electorate, government had to be interested in reform.
28 of 50
What was the royal commision of 1867?
These were two reports that were interested in employer and employee rights?
29 of 50
What did the majority report of the royal commision recommend?
That there should be a degree of legalisation of with some restictions, e.g. the seperation of strike funds from the general fund and the powers of veto on certian union rules relating to employers practices.
30 of 50
What did the minority report of the royal commision recommend?
That there should be a full legalisation of union with no restrictions.
31 of 50
What is mutualism?
The idea that people are dependent upon other people and support them instead of competing with them.
32 of 50
What was New Lanark?
A mill owned by Robert Owen until 1828 who was a proponent of utopian socialism and allowed him employees to be in a spafe enviroment with eduction.
33 of 50
What was the incentive to work hard in New Lanark?
A coloured board over every worker's head. Different colours symbolised how well that person was working. It appealed to the workers social standing and therefore there was no worker, master divide in the factory.
34 of 50
What were other revoltuionary ideas that Owen put in place at the mill?
After 1800 the working day was shorttened to no more than 12 hours, including a 1 1/2 hour break. The minimum age that children could work was 10. Shops were created that put the profits into a school system.
35 of 50
What were Labour exchange bazaars?
In 1832 these were shops where instead of a monetary value, goods were bought with the amount of labour hours that it took to produce these goods. They failed due to too many unwanted goods.
36 of 50
Why were people more interested in co-operative living rather than communial societies?
Because of the highly competative era, people needed a monetary incentive to become involved with a scheme. Co-operative shops offered dividends to any one with financial interests in the shop.
37 of 50
Which group formalised the co-operative business?
The Rochdale Pioneers in 1844.
38 of 50
What were the Rochdale Principles?
Money should provided by each memeber, goods must be the best quality, charge by market price, Profits divided between the members, 1 member 1 vote, women can become members, elected leaders, a % of the profits to education.
39 of 50
Why were the Rochdale Prinicples important?
Because they set up a sustianable business model for co-operative shops.
40 of 50
What ensured that the Rochdale Pioneers shop would grow?
Because they were a successful business, many other societies asked for them to set up a wholesale service - 1863, and by 1868 it had established trading depots with Australia and South America, ensuring more goods to keep growth rates increasing.
41 of 50
By the mid 1850 there were ... stores in Britian amassing property worth ...
1,000, £300,000 - pretty much cementing it's position in the British economy.
42 of 50
What were Friendly Societies - FS?
This was an orgainsation of men that supported one another financially.
43 of 50
How did the government react to the growth of Friendly Societies?
They produced the Friendly Societies Act of 1793 as they feared radicalism like that in France.
44 of 50
What did the Friendly Societies Act of 1793 do?
FS had to register themselves with a JP and report their activities every 3 months. They had to have constitutions with which to govern themselves that did not interfer with the government.
45 of 50
What were the immediate effects of the Act?
That a friendly society had legal protection, this cuased an explosion of them, by 1815 1 third of the population was insured by a 'friendly'.
46 of 50
What were the long term effects of a Friendly Society?
Greater benifits were offered to members, e.g. bed a breakfast for any who were travelling around for work if you were a member.
47 of 50
What were the draw backs of a Friendly Society?
Because of the membership fee it meant that many of the poorest workers were excluded from being in a society. However due to these fees it meant that Friendly Societies were a viable business model.
48 of 50
Why did the government support the Friendly Societies with the Friendly Societies Act of 1855?
As it supported the self help ethos of mid-victorian Britain, and it meant that the government did not have to supply the same levels of provisions for the public if they were covered by Friendly Societies.
49 of 50
Why were the Friendly Societies so important?
As they allowed for many working people to achieve a certian level of comfort in their lives if they knew that they were covered by a society.
50 of 50

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What were 'closed shop' practices?


The practice of emplying only individuals who were members of the trade union or were in good standing with a trade union.

Card 3


Who were knobsticks?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the difference between Trade Unions and Trade Societies?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did the growth of Trade Unions do to the dynamic between employee and employer?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards




Thank you, this is very helpful!

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Modern Britain from 1750 resources »