Define scientific
Based on empirical observation and experimentation - fact based rather than tradition, religion or guesswork
1 of 154
Define progress
Continuous stream of improvement regarding patient care and well-being as well as the development of cures
2 of 154
Main argument
Not purely scientific progress although did play a big part
3 of 154
First paragraph topic
Ways in which science has contributed
4 of 154
What is significant about the Enlightenment?
It encouraged the use of reason rather than religion
5 of 154
How did this change people's perspective?
Made them view God as an intelligent designer rather than all powerful
6 of 154
When did Edward Jenner develop his vaccine?
7 of 154
Why was it significant?
Because it showed someone combining folklore with scientific tests and coming out with a proven theory
8 of 154
Who developed percussion theory?
Leopold Auenbrugger
9 of 154
When did he do this?
10 of 154
What inspired him?
His father tapping beer bottles
11 of 154
What was this progress from?
The theory of the humours
12 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 2?
What other things contributed to the progress of medicine
13 of 154
When are where was the preventative program?
Germany in the 1920s
14 of 154
What inspired it to run?
Both the incurable nature of TB and the high death rate of WWI
15 of 154
What was its main tool?
16 of 154
How did it contribute to the progress of medicine?
It improved the health of the country overall and the public's knowledge of basic hygiene
17 of 154
What kind of progress was this?
Social rather than scientific
18 of 154
Which historian wrote about quack doctors?
Barry Smith
19 of 154
What did he argue?
That they did less harm than registered practitioners
20 of 154
Why did he argue this?
Because quack doctors did not actually hurt their patients whereas experimental treatments sometimes did, and also because quack doctors provided relief at a low cost in the form of comfort and support when there was no cure for TB
21 of 154
What negative aspect did these doctors have?
Many were exploitative
22 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 3?
How the asylum system was not progressive for medicine
23 of 154
What year was the Lunacy Act?
24 of 154
What did Michel Foucalt call this period?
The Great Confinement
25 of 154
Why did he call it this?
Because he said it was a period characterised by imprisonment - increase in number of prisons, workhouses and asylums saw those on the edges of society being targeted as an attempt to control them
26 of 154
What methods of control were introduced after the influx?
Restraint chairs and straightjackets
27 of 154
Why was this not progressive?
There was a lack of interest in understanding the illnesses they faced and only control
28 of 154
What topic is paragraph 4 on?
How people refusing to accept developments slowed progress
29 of 154
Which historian is this section on?
Mark Jackson
30 of 154
What did he argue?
That 18thC England did not see traditional methods of medicine replaced by new and innovative treatments
31 of 154
What example did he use?
The continued domestic tradition of using animal and herb products
32 of 154
When did James Lind do his experiment and what was it on?
1747 and scurvy
33 of 154
When was it implemented?
34 of 154
What was the reason for the delay?
His superiors being too stubborn to accept that a lowly naval surgeon could have come up with such a simple cure
35 of 154
What topic is paragraph 5 on?
How some medical developments led to unexpected problems
36 of 154
Which historian is this on?
Lois Magner
37 of 154
What did her research show?
That middle and upper class infants were developing scurvy from being put on sterilised cow milk because it had no vitamin c, although it had been shown to reduce infant diarrhoea
38 of 154
Main argument of consumerism essay
That it has not increased social equality
39 of 154
Topic of paragraph 1
How consumerism has contributed to gender equality
40 of 154
How did it initially increase it?
Through creating products that would ease housework, thus allowing women more time for leisure
41 of 154
Who wrote about the impact on political influence?
Dietlind Stolle
42 of 154
What did she saw consumer action was good for
Changing governmental and corporate action
43 of 154
Which form of action was particularly effective?
44 of 154
Which two historians discussed it in relation to the two spheres theory?
Victoria De Grazia and Ellen Furlough
45 of 154
What did they suggest?
That consumerism allowed women into a place they were not before - the public sphere
46 of 154
What do recent gender historians say on this?
That the two spheres theory is too simplistic and that in reality many women were not only limited to the private sphere in history
47 of 154
How do you dispute this?
Its true but at the same time many were so this factor is still important
48 of 154
Why was it detrimental to women?
It encouraged criticism of them
49 of 154
How were they depicted in the early 20thC?
Irrational and weak
50 of 154
What happened with the discovery of kleptomania?
Women were portrayed as 'easy targets'
51 of 154
What else were they accused of?
Having a lack of morality and self-control
52 of 154
What happened with the increase of advertising?
A rise in the objectification of women especially through high sexualisation of models
53 of 154
What positive developments have happened more recently?
Positive ad campaigns such as Dove 'love your body'
54 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 2?
That class equality has not increased, but that the main detrimental effects happened later than gender
55 of 154
When did class inequality develop?
End of the 20thC
56 of 154
What criticism was prevalent in the 18thC?
Conservatives argued that consumerism was disrupting the social hierarchy as it allowed lower class people to adopt higher class lifestyles
57 of 154
Which historian is this section?
Peter Stearns
58 of 154
What did he say?
That there was an attitude in Europe that the working class 'did not deserve' consumerism and that embracing it showed a lack of restraint and bad character
59 of 154
Why were these negatives actually positives?
Because they show that it resulted in some level of social mobility, which is a good thing for equality
60 of 154
What happened in the 1980s and 1990s?
There was a boom which sent lots of wealth to the top 20% of people and created a bigger divide between them and the rest of the people
61 of 154
How was this divide hidden?
Becuase people aspire to similar things - 'vertical emulation' (Juliet Schor)
62 of 154
Why does 'vertical emulation' create a problem?
It increases the level of debt faced by the lower classes and thus increases the financial divide between the classes
63 of 154
What year was the first champagne advert?
64 of 154
Which magazine?
Life magazine
65 of 154
Which brand?
Miller High Life
66 of 154
When was the second champagne advert?
67 of 154
What did the first one depict?
A high class, aristocratic wedding - idealistic life - tuxedos and expensive dresses
68 of 154
What did the second one depict?
A much more everyday scene - picnic - more relatable to all
69 of 154
What does this suggest?
That the beer changed its audience from exclusive upper class to the lower classes
70 of 154
What does this reflect?
The growing ability for the lower classes to aspire to the same level as the higher classes
71 of 154
What else could be the reason behind it?
The growth in mass production
72 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 3?
How consumerism has not increased global equality
73 of 154
How is it a form of cultural imperialism?
Because Western brands dominate the market and drive down the prices of local produce resulting in lower wages for producers
74 of 154
What has tried to combat this?
Companies such as fairtrade, which make sure that producers get a fair wage
75 of 154
Why don't they change the equation?
Because they are a minority and so the majority of companies are still exploitative
76 of 154
How are they a product of consumerism?
Because they are a reaction to the exploitation and also expanded by pressure on large companies from consumers
77 of 154
What is 'compassionate consumerism'
When companies offer a deal such as 'buy one bottle of water and one will be donated to children in Africa'
78 of 154
Who wrote about it?
Japhy Wilson
79 of 154
Why did he say it is bad?
Because it increases the superiority complex of the West and actually has very little affect on global equality but makes people feel like they don't have to do anything else
80 of 154
When was the Slow Food Movement established?
81 of 154
What does its success suggest?
That we might be moving in a positive direction towards greater global equality
82 of 154
What is the main argument of the death and afterlife essay?
That the most dramatic changes occurred during the Reformation - quick and over a short period of time
83 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 1?
How purgatory changed before the Reformation
84 of 154
Where and what year was it codified as a doctrine?
At the Council of Lyons in 1274
85 of 154
What was the belief held prior to this?
That it was important that the living take care of the dead
86 of 154
Which historian is this section?
John Arnold
87 of 154
What evidence does he use
Feast days like All Saints and All Souls which aimed to placate the dead
88 of 154
What other evidence can you use?
The tradition of grave goods
89 of 154
What did people struggle with
The binary nature of heaven and hell
90 of 154
Why this?
Because they felt that humans could not be so easily divided into two groups of good and bad
91 of 154
How long did it take to diffuse into society?
About a century and a half
92 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 2?
Purgatory and the Reformation
93 of 154
Who abolished it?
The Protestants
94 of 154
What did they suggest?
That the living could have no bearing on the dead
95 of 154
How do we know that this belief was not widespread?
The continuation of ghost stories
96 of 154
How did the reformers combat ghost stories?
They said that they were frauds put forward by Catholics in an attempt to prove purgatory
97 of 154
Why were they a way of 'proving' purgatory?
Because the ghosts were individuals who could not pass on due to unfinished business and who normally asked for prayers from the living
98 of 154
What was the alternative given to ghosts being fake?
That they were angels sent from God
99 of 154
Which historian is this section?
Peter Marshall
100 of 154
What does he suggest?
That the lack of opposition to the dissolution of the chantries means that people did not agree with the doctrine of purgatory
101 of 154
What other reasons could there be?
Fear of retribution, a dislike for the chantries or even a feeling that there was no need for them
102 of 154
What suggests that there was still a belief in more than just heaven and hell
The other ideas put forward of a temporary resting place
103 of 154
What examples of this were there?
Calvinist idea of 'abraham's bosom' and mortalist idea of the soul sleeping or dying temporarily
104 of 154
What did both of these wait for?
The Last Judgement
105 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 3?
How the doctrine of heaven changed in the Reformation
106 of 154
What was original Catholic belief?
Linked to the ptolemaic system - belief in 7 spheres
107 of 154
How did Thomas Aquinas affirm this?
He argued that the more blessed an individual the closer they would be to God
108 of 154
How does Dante depict heaven?
Timeless place of indescribable beauty in the presence of God
109 of 154
How did this influence the West
110 of 154
What concept that was introduced in the Reformation undermined this?
111 of 154
Was this influential?
Not massively so - Calvinist
112 of 154
What was more influential?
Luther's belief
113 of 154
What did he believe?
That heaven meant purely to be in the unchanging presence of God and so the seven spheres did not make sense
114 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 4?
How the doctrine of Hell changed
115 of 154
Which criticism was the same as heaven?
The criticism of the hierarchical system
116 of 154
What was the belief in the 14thC
That hell was a 'house of pain' suggesting 'brutal, physical torture'
117 of 154
Who inspired this?
118 of 154
What changed in the 16thC?
Became an idea of psychological torture
119 of 154
What book showed this?
Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion
120 of 154
What does it suggest?
That torture is metaphorical for being without God
121 of 154
What is the argument for the urban life essay?
That the marginalisation in general is to do with prejudice
122 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 1?
That the main reason behind the marginalisation of the Jews was their relationship with the Christians
123 of 154
Which historian is this section?
David Nicholas
124 of 154
What does he say?
That you can't always tell if Jewish separation is enforced or self-chosen (to enforce ritual and prevent intermarriage)
125 of 154
What example can you use to dispute this?
Majorca in 1231 when Jews were invited to settle but limited to certain places
126 of 154
Another example is...
How Jewish quarters are most often found on the outskirts of town - away from the centre where people of high status lived
127 of 154
What belief inspired this?
That the Jews were inferior to Christians
128 of 154
What did Christians see themselves as?
God's chosen people
129 of 154
Why did they think the Jews should always be subservient?
Because they killed Jesus
130 of 154
What was another reason Jews were marginalised
Christians were in charge so they could do it
131 of 154
What is a clear example of this?
The 1555 Papal Bull which made Roman Jews sell all their property, live in an enclosure at fixed rent and wear yellow caps
132 of 154
Which other historian is this section?
Keith Lilley
133 of 154
What does he say?
That religious and secular authorities valued order above all else
134 of 154
Why is this significant?
Because it suggests that sometimes Jews might have been separated because of fear of what would happen rather than prejudice
135 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 2?
Prostitutes being marginalised because they were morally inferior
136 of 154
Which historian?
137 of 154
What did he say?
That many governments saw prostitutes as a necessary evil and that it must have been considered more normal because some higher standing citizens frequented them
138 of 154
Despite this prostitutes were still confined to an area of the town. Give an example.
In Venice, prostitutes were seen as a 'tourist attraction' and the authorities kept a list of them, but they were only allowed in the area of town where the foreign merchants were
139 of 154
What fear inspired this confinement also?
That 'honest women' would be mistaken for prostitutes
140 of 154
How did Bristol prevent this?
By making it mandatory that prostitutes wear a striped hood
141 of 154
How were lower class prostitutes viewed?
As the same level as thieves - tricking people out of money
142 of 154
Who did this not apply to and why?
High class courtesans - not seen as part of the 'criminal underworld'
143 of 154
What is the topic of paragraph 3?
How lepers were marginalised because they were considered 'unclean'
144 of 154
Which historian?
Christopher Lewis
145 of 154
What did he say?
Suggested that leper hospitals came about from groups of lepers gathering together in places that were good to collect alms?
146 of 154
What do you think?
This is perhaps true but likely that the lepers were expelled from the towns first because the best place to collect alms would surely be the centre where it was most busy?
147 of 154
What is the biblical teaching on lepers?
That they should be kept separated from society
148 of 154
Which legend inspired another belief?
Legend of constantine - that he was struck down with leprosy as a punishment for persecuting Christians - inspired the belief that leprosy was a punishment for sin
149 of 154
How did this make people view lepers?
As spiritually unclean
150 of 154
What does this explain?
Separation pre 13C when it became accepted that it was contagious
151 of 154
What else does it explain?
Discrimination that had nothing to do with contagion such as 13thC English Common Law which prevented lepers from obtaining property, having the right to sue or to make contracts
152 of 154
What else shows this disdain?
The treatment of lepers during the 1321 water conspiracy
153 of 154
How do we know this?
Lepers who testified pointed out prejudice as the main factor as to why the rumour spread so successfully
154 of 154

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define progress


Continuous stream of improvement regarding patient care and well-being as well as the development of cures

Card 3


Main argument


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


First paragraph topic


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is significant about the Enlightenment?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Modern and medieval resources »