The Respiratory System

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What are the primary functions of the Respiratory system?
1)To extract Oxygen from the air and transfer it to the blood stream in the lung. 2) Excrete water vapour and carbon dioxide 3)Maintain a normal acid-base balance in the blood 4)ventilate the lungs
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How much Oxygen is in inspired air?
20%
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How much Carbon dioxide is inhaled and how much is exhaled?
We breath in 0.04% and exhale 4%
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Does the human body use any of the Nitrogen we inhale from the atmosphere?
No none is used
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Name all eight parts of the respiratory tract
1)nose 2)pharynx 3)larynx 4)trachea 5) bronchi 6)bronchioles 7)alveolar ducts 8)alveoli
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Where does the exchange of gases take place in the lungs?
The capillaries and alveoli
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How many lobes does the right lung have?
3
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How many lobes does the left lung have?
2
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Name the membrane than covers the lungs outer surfaces
The visceral pleura
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Name the membrane that surrounds the lungs and visceral pleura
The parietal Pleura
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Name the fluid that stops the alveoli from collapsing in on themselves
Sefactant
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What is external respiration
Diffusion through the exchange of gases that takes place in the lungs
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What is internal respiration
Diffusion through the exchange of gases at the tissue level
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What is diffusion?
This is the process in which the dissolves substances cross a semi-permeable membrane from a high to a low concrentration gradient.
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What happens if gases of different composition meet during diffusion?
They mingle together until they have indential compositions of both substance
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Name the two points that happen in external respiration
Oxygen is inhaled and absorbed into the blood via the capillaries of the lung 2) carbon dioxide is released from the blood and given back to the lungs and it is then expired
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What happens in internal respiration?
The blood carries oxygen to the body cells, oxygen is given to the tissues for use by the cells and carbon dioxide and water is absorbed by the blood and carried to the lungs (think of the red car demonstration)
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Describe the changes during inspiration
During inspiration the diaphragm moves downwards and becomes flat to make more room for the lungs to expand and the ribs move upwards and outwards caused by the action of the intercostal muscles.
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Describe the changes during Exhalation
The diaphragm moves upwards and forms a dome shape, the intercostal muscles move up and the ribs move downwards and inwards forcing the air out of the lungs.
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Is the control of respiration voluntary or involuntary?
It is partly voluntary but mainly involuntary
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When can control over the respiration be exerted?
When speaking or singing etc
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Where is the centre for voluntary control of the respiratory system found
In the cerebral cortex but this is overidden by chemical or nervous activity
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What controls the involuntary part of respiration
It is controlled by the nerve cells in the brain stem, the medulla oblongata and pneumotaxic centre in the pons varolii
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Which nerve do the impulses from the respiratory centre pass through before going to diaphragm and intercostal muscles?
The phrenic nerve and intercostal nerves
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What happens when the stretch receptors are stimulated?
The impulse is passed to the pneumotaxic centre and this causes up to exhale.
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Where are the chemoreceptors?
In the aortic arch and cartoid bodies
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What do chemoreceptors monitor?
The partial pressure of CO2 in the system and the partial pressure of O2 in the blood
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What is the different about the hypoxic drive in a COPD patient?
They are less sensitive to the level of CO2 in their blood, due to being hypoxic and having a low level of Oxygen in their blood (hypoxaemia) as a result the brain is only stimulated when there is a low level of O2 in the blood
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What is the average respiratory rate for an average adult?
16-20 times a minute
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What is the average respiratory rate for an average child/infant?
24-40 times a minute
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Will shock increase the respiratory rate?
Yes it will
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What will decrease a respiratory rate?
A head injury, certain drugs i.e. morphine
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Name conditions that cause abnormal breathing rates:
1)Dyspnoea (diffidult laboured breathing) 2)apnoea (cessation of respiration) 3)hypoxia (lack of O2 in the blood) 4) hypercarbia (excess CO2 in the blood)
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What is the main cause of cardiac arrest in Children?
Normally always a problem that has occured in their respiratory system.
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Which part of respiration does the medulla control?
rhythmicity of the breathing
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How many complete respiratory cycles are there approximately a minute?
Around 15
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What is tidal volume?
The amount of air passed into and out of lungs during each cycle of breathing normally around 500ml
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What is the Inspiratory reserve volume ?
This is the extra amount of air that can be taken in during maximal inspiration
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What is the inspiratory capacity?
This is the amount of air that can be inspired with maximum effort it consists of the tidal volume of 500ml plus whatever the IRV is
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What is the expiratory reserve volume ?
It is the largest volume of air which can be expelled from the lungs during maximal expiration
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What is the equation for Vital capacity?
VC= Tidal volume (500)+IRV+ERV
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What is the total lung capacity ?
The average amount of an adult is 6L of O2
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What is the atmospheric pressure of air at sea level?
760 mmHg
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Why might premature babies struggle to inflate their lungs under their own strength?
Prem babies born before the 34th week may struggle to breath as their lungs are too premature to produce surfactant
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What is the purpose of nasal concha?
To humidify the air, and to increase surface area, and to create turbulance, and to filter and clean inhaled air
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What is the pharynx?
It is the throat, it is around 12-14cm's long, and runs until the 6th thoracic vertebrae where it becomes the oesophagus
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What is the nasopharynx?
It is the nasal part of the pharynx which lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate
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what is the oropharynx?
The part of the pharynx which lays behind the mouth all the way to the 3rd cervical vertebra
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How much Oxygen is in inspired air?

Back

20%

Card 3

Front

How much Carbon dioxide is inhaled and how much is exhaled?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Does the human body use any of the Nitrogen we inhale from the atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name all eight parts of the respiratory tract

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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